Scanned text contains errors.
translation, was published by H. Justellus in the Bibliotli. Jur. Canon, vol. ii. p. 749, &c. His will likewise, with a Latin translation, was published by Cotelerius, Monument, ii. p. 168, &c. (Pachy-mer. ii. 15, iii. 1, 2, 10, 14,19, iv. 1—16 ; Nice-phorus Gregoras, iii. 1, iv. 1, &c.; Cave, Hist. Lit, i, p. 725, &c., ed. London; Fabr. BibL Graec. xi. p. 581.)
2. A Greek monk (Cave calls him Patricius Romanus), who lived towards the end of the fourth century of our era, was distinguished for his know ledge of Greek and Roman literature. The emperor Theodosius the Great invited him to his court, and entrusted to him the education of his sons Arcadias and Honorius, whose father Arsenius was called. At the age of forty, he left the court and went to Egypt, where he commenced his monastic life at Scetis in the desert of the Thebais. There he spent forty years, and then migrated to Troe, a place near Memphis, where he passed the remainder of his life, with the exception of three }rears, which he spent at Canopus. He died at Troe at the age of ninety-five. There exists by him a short work containing instructions and admonitions for monks, which is written in a truly monastic spirit. It was published with a Latin translation by Combensius in his Auctariurn Novissimum Biblioth. Patr.^ Paris, 1672, p. 301, &c. We also possess forty-four of his remarkable sayings (apoplithegmata\ which had been collected by his ascetic friends, and which are printed in Cotelerius' Monumenta, i. p. 353. (Cave, Hist. Lit. ii. p. 80? ed. London; Fabr. Bibl. Graec. xi. p. 580, &c.) [L. S.]
ARSES, NARSES, or CAUSES ("Apcr-ns, Na(cxr?7s, or 'Oa-yrr???), the youngest son of king Ar-taxerxes III. (Ochus.) After the eunuch Bagoas had poisoned Artaxerxes, he raised Arses to the throne, b. c. 339 ; and that he might have the young king completely under his power, he caused the king's brothers to be put to death ; but one of them, Bisthanes, appears to have escaped their fate. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 19.) Arses, however, could but ill brook the indignities committed against his own family, and the bondage in which he himself was kept; and as soon as Bagoas perceived that the king was disposed to take vengeance, he had him and his children too put to death, in the third year of his reign. The royal house appears to have been thus destroyed with the exception of the above-mentioned Bisthanes, and Bagoas raised Dareius Codomannus to the •throne. (Diod. xvii. 5 ; Strab. xv. p. 736 ; Plut. de Fort. Aletx. ii. 3, Artaoc. 1 ; Arrian, Anab. ii. 14; Ctesias, Pers. p. 151, ed. Lion; Syncell. pp. 145, 392, 394, 487, ed. Dindorf.) [L. S.]
ARSINOE ('Apa-tvo-n). 1. A daughter of Phe-geus, and wife of Alcmaeon. As she disapproved of the murder of Alcmaeon, the sons of Phegeus put her into a chest and carried her to Agape nor at Tegea, where they accused her of having killed Alcmaeon herself. (Apollod. iii. 7. § 5 ; alcmaeon, agenor.)
2. The nurse of Orestes, who saved him from the hands of his mother Clytemnestra, and carried him to the aged Strophins, the father of Pylades. (Pind. Pyih. xi. 25, 54.) Other traditions called this nurse Laodameia. (Schol. ad Pind. I. c.)
Asclepius also as her son. (Apollod. iii'. 10. § 3; Paus. ii. 26. § 6 ; Schol. ad Pind. Pytli. iii. 14 ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 22.) At Sparta she had a sanctuary and was worshipped as a heroine. (Paus. iii. 12. § 7.) [L. S.]
ARSINOE ('Apfftvor)). ]. The mother of Ptolemy I., king of Egypt, was originally a concubine of Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, and was given by Philip to La.gus} a Macedonian, while she was pregnant with Ptolemy. Hence Ptolemy was regarded by the Macedonians as the son of Philip. (Paus. i. 6. § 2 ; Curt. ix. 8 ; Sui-das, s. v. Adyos.)
2. The daughter of Ptolemy I. and Berenice, born about B. c. 316, was married in b. c. 300 to Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who was then far advanced in years. Lysimachus had put away Amastris in order to marry Arsinoe, and upon the death of the former in b. c. 288 [amastris], Arsinoe received from Lysimachus the cities of Heracleia, Amastris, and Dmm, as a present. (Plut. Demtr. 31 ; Paus. i. 10. § 3 ; Memnon, ap. Phot. p. 225, a. 30, ed. Bekker.)
Arsinoe, who was anxious to secure the succession to the throne for her own children, was jealous of her step-soil Agathocles, who was married to her half-sister Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemy I. and Eurydice. Through the intrigues of Arsinoe, Agathocles was eventually put to death in b. c. 284. [agathocles, p. 65, a,] This crime, however, led to the death of Lysimachus ; for Lysandra fled with her children to Se-leucus in Asia, who was glad of the pretext to march against Lysimachus. In the war which followed, Lysimachus lost his life (b.c. 281); and after the death of her husband, Arsinoe first fled to Ephesus, to which Lysimachus had given the name of Arsinoe in honour of her (Steph. Byz. s. v. ''Ef^ecros), and from thence (Polyaen. viii. 57) to Cassandreia in Macedonia, where she shut herself up with her sons by Lysimachus.
Seleucus had seized Macedonia after the death of Lysimachus, but he was assassinated, after a reign of a few months, by Ptolemy Ceraunus, the half-brother of Arsinoe, who had now obtained the throne of Macedonia. Ptolemy wa,s anxious to obtain possession of Cassandreia and still more of the sons of Lysimachus, who might prove formidable rivals to him. He accordingly made offers of marriage to Arsinoe, and concealed his real object by the most solemn oaths and promises. Arsinoe consented to the union, and admitted him into the town; but he had scarcely obtained possession of the place, before he murdered the two younger sons of Lysimachus in the presence of their mother. Arsinoe herself fled to Samothrace (Justin, xvii. 2, xxiv. 2, 3; Memnon, ap. Phot. p. 226, b. 34) ; from whence she shortly after went to Alexandria in Egypt b. c. 279, and married her own brother Ptolemy II. Philadelphia. (Paus. i. 7. §§ 1, 3 ; Theocrit. Idyll, xv. 128, &c. with the Scholia ; Athen. xiv. p. 621, a.) Though Arsinoe bore Ptolemy no children, she was exceedingly beloved by him; he gave her name to several cities, called a district (vouos) of Egypt Arsino'ites after her, and honoured her memory in various ways. (Comp. Pans, L c.; Athen. vii. p. 318, b. xi. p. 497, d. e.) Among other things, he commanded the architect, Dinochares, to erect a temple to Arsinoe in Alexandria, of which the roof was to be arched with loadstones, so that her statue made of