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365

ARSACIDAE.

from St. Martin, and is founded upon the Armenian histories of Moses Chorenensis and Faustus Byzan-tinus, compared with the Greek and Roman authors. A. The first or elder Branch in Armenia Magna. B. c. 14.9. Valarsaees or Wagharshag I., founder of the Armenian dynasty of the Arsacidae, established on the throne of Armenia by his brother, Mithri-dates Arsaces [arsaces VI.] king of the Parthians.

——b.c. 127- Arsaces or Arshag I., his son.—b.c. 114. Artaces, Artaxes, or Ardashes I., his son.—B. c. 89. Tigranes or Dikran I. (II.), his son.—B. c. 36. Artavasdes or Artawazt I., his son.—b. c. 30. Ar­taxes II., his son.—b. c. 20. Tigranes II., brother of Artaxes II.—b. c. .... Tigranes III.—B. c. 6. Artavasdes II.—b. c. 5. Tigranes III. re-esta­blished.—b. c. 2. Erato, queen.

a. d. 2. Ariobarzanes, a Parthian prince, esta­blished by the Romans.—a. d. 4. Artavasdes III. or Artabases, his son.—a. d. 5. Erato re-established; death uncertain.— .... Interregnum.—a. d. 16. Vonones.—a. d. 17. Interregnum.—a. d. 18. Zeno of Pontus, surnamed Artaxias.— ... Tigranes IV., son of Alexander Herodes,—a. n. 35. Arsaces II.

a. d. 35. Mithridates of Iberia.—a. d. 51. Rha-damistus of Iberia.—a. d. 52. Tiridates I.— a. d. 60. Tigranes V. of the race of Herodes.—a. r>. 62. Tiridates I. re-established by Nero, reigned about eleven years longer.

B. The second or younger Branch^ at first at Edessa, and sometimes identical with the " Reges Osrhoenenses," afterwards in Armenia Magna. b. c. 38. Arsham or Ardsham, the Artabazes of Josephus. (Ant. Jud. xx. 2.)—b. c. 10. Mann, his son.—b. c. 5. Abgarus, the son of Arsham, the Ushama of the Syrians. This is the celebrated Abgarus who is said to have written a letter to our Saviour. (Moses Chor. ii. 29.)

a. n. 32. Anane or Ananus, the son of Abgarus.

a. d. 36. Sanadrug or Sanatruces, the son of a sister of Abgares, usurps the throne.—a. d. 58. Erowant, an Arsacid by the female line, usurps the throne; conquers all Armenia; cedes Edessa and Mesopotamia to the Romans.—a. d. 78. Ardashes or Artaxes III. (Exedares or Axidares), the son of Sanadrug, established by Vologeses I., king of the Parthians.—a. d. 120. Ardawazt or Artavasdes IV., son of Ardashes III., reigns only some months.— a. r>. 121. Diran or Tiranus I., his brother.—a. d. 142. Dikran or Tigranes VI., driven out by Lucius (Martins) Verus, who puts Soaemus on the throne.

a.d.i78. Wagharsh or Vologeses, the son of Tigranes VI.—a. d. 198. Chosroes or Khosrew I., sumamed Medz, or the Great, the (fabulous) con­queror (overrunner) of Asia Minor; murdered by the Arsacid Anag, who was the father of St. Gre­gory, the apostle of Armenia.—a. d. 232. Ardashir or Artaxerxes, the first Sassanid of Persia.—a. d. 259. Dertad or Tiridates II., surnamed Medz, the son of Chosroes, established by the Romans.—a. d. 314. Interregnum. Sanadrug seizes northern Ar­menia, and Pagur southern Armenia, "but only for a short time.—a. n.316. Chosroes or Khosrew II., surnamed P'hok'hr, or "the Little,*" the son of Tiridates Mezd.—a. d. 325. Diran or Tiranus II., his son.—a. d. 341. Arsaces or Arshag III., his son.

a. d. 370. Bab or Para.—a. d. 377. Waraztad, usurper.—a. d. 382. Arsaces IV. (and Valarsaces or Wagharshag II., his brother).—a. d. 387. Ar­menia divided. — a. d. 389. Arsaces IV. dies. Cazavon in Roman Armenia, Chosroes or Khosrew III. in Persarmenia.—a. d. 392, Bahram Shapur

ARSENIUS.

(Sapor), the brother of Chosroes III.—a. d. 414. Chosroes re-established by Yezdegerd.—-a. D. 415. Shapur or Sapor, the son of Yezdegerd—a. d. 419. Interregnum.—a. d. 422. Ardashes or Ardashir (Artasires) IV.—a. d. 428. End of the kingdom of Armenia. (Comp. Vaillant, Regnum Arsacidarum, especially Elenchus Regum Armeniae Majoris^ in the 1st. vol.; Du Four de Longuerue, Annales Arsaci- darum, Strasb. 17 32 ; Richter, Histor. Krit. Versuch ilber die Arsaciden und Sassaniden-Dynastien, Got- tingen, 1804; St. Martin, Memoires historiques et gtoarapk. sur FArmenie, vol. i.) [W. P.]

ARSAMENES ('ApoW^s-), the son of Dareius, the commander of the Utii and Myci in the army of Xerxes. (Herod, vii. 68.)

ARSAMES (3Ap<ra>?s)- 1- The father of Hystaspes and grandfather of Dareius. (Herod, i. 209, vii. 11, 224.)

2. Also called Arsanes, the great grandson of the preceding, and the son of Dareius and Artys-tone, the daughter of Cyrus, commanded in the army of Xerxes the Arabians and the Aethiopians who lived above Egypt. (Herod, vii. 69.) Aes­chylus (Pers. 37, 300) speaks of an Arsames, who was the leader of the Egyptians from Memphis in the army of Xerxes.

3. An illegitimate son of Artaxerxes Mnemon, murdered by his brother Artaxerxes Ochus. (Plut. Artax. c. 30.)

4. Supposed on the authority of a coin to have been a king of Armenia about the time of Seleucus II., and conjectured to have been the founder of the city of Arsamosata. (Eckhel, iii. p. 204, &c.)

ARSENIUS ('AptreVws). 1. Of Constantinople, surnamed Autorianus, lived about the middle of the thirteenth century. He was educated in some monastery in Nicaea, of which he afterwards be­came the head. After he had held this office for some time, he led a private and ascetic life ; and he appears to have passed some time also in one of the monasteries on mount Athos. At length, about a. d. 1255, the emperor Theodoras Lascaris the Younger raised him to the dignity of patriarch. In A. d. 1259, when the emperor died, he appointed Arsenius and Georgius Muzalo guardians to his son Joannes; but when Muzalo began to harbour trea­cherous designs against the young prince, Arsenius, indignant at such faithless intrigues, resigned the office of patriarch, and withdrew to a monastery. In A. d. 1260,, when the Greeks had recovered possession of Constantinople under Michael Palaeo-logus, Arsenius was invited to the imperial city, and requested to resume the dignity of patriarch. In the year following, the emperor Michael Palaeo-logus ordered prince Joannes, the son of Theodorus Lascaris, to be blinded; and Arsenius not only censured this act of the emperor publicly, but pu­nished him for it with excommunication. Michael in vain implored forgiveness, till at length, enraged at such presumption, he assembled a council of bishops, brought several fictitious accusations against his patriarch, and caused him to be deposed arid exiled to Proconnesus. Here Arsenius survived his honourable disgrace for several years; but the time of his death is unknown. Fabricius places it in a. d. 1264. He was a man of great virtue and piety, but totally unfit for practical life. At the time when he was yet a monk, he wrote a synopsis of divine laws (Synopsis Canonum), collected from the writings of the fathers and the decrees of coun­cils. The Greek original, accompanied by a Latin

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