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but were unable to take it. As Vologeses also found that Corlmlo had taken every precaution to secure Syria, he sent ambassadors to Corbulo to solicit a truce, that he might despatch an embassy to Rome concerning the terms of peace. This was granted; but as no satisfactory answer was ob­tained from Nero, Vologeses invaded Armenia, where he gained considerable advantages over Caesenninus Paetus, and at length besieged him in his winter-quarters. Paetus, alarmed at his situation, agreed with Vologeses, that Armenia should be surrendered to the Romans, and that he should be allowed to retire in safety from the country, a. d. 62. Shortly after this, Vologeses sent another embassy to Rome; and Nero agreed to surrender Armenia to Tiridates, provided the latter would come to Rome and receive it as a gift from the Roman emperor. Peace was made on these conditions; and Tiridates repaired to Rome, A. d. 63, where he was received with extraordinary

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splendour, and obtained from Nero the Armenian crown. (Tac. Ann. xv. 1—18, 25—31; Dion Cass. Ixii. 20—23, Ixiii. 1—7.)

In the struggle for the empire after Nero's death, Vologeses sent ambassadors to Vespasian, offering to assist him with 40,000 Parthians. This offer was declined by Vespasian, but he bade Vo­logeses send ambassadors to the senate, and he secured peace to him. (Tac.Ifist. iv. 51.) Vologeses afterwards sent an embassy to Titus, as he was returning from the conquest of Jerusalem, to con­gratulate him on his success, and present him with a golden crown ; and shortly afterwards (a. d. 72), he sent another embassy to Vespasian to intercede on behalf of Antiochus, the deposed king of Com-magene. (Joseph. B. J, vii. 5. § 2, 7. § 3; corop. Dion Cass. Ixvi. 11; Suet. Ner. 57.) In A. d. 75, Vologeses sent again to Vespasian, to beg him to assist the Parthians against the Alani, who were then at war with them; but Vespasian declined to do so, on the plea that it did not become him to meddle in other people's affairs. (Dion Cass. Ixvi. 15; Suet. Dom. 2 ; Joseph. B. J. vii. 7. §4.) Vologeses founded on the Euphrates, a little to the south of Babylon, the town of Vologesocerta. (Plin. H. N. vi. 30.) He seems to have lived till the reign of Domitian.

arsaces XXIV., pacorus, succeeded his father, Vologeses I., and was a contemporary of Domitian and Trajan; but scarcely anything is recorded of his reign. He is mentioned by Martial (ix. 36), and it appears from Pliny (Ep. x. 16), that he was in alliance with Decebalus, the king of the Dacians. It was probably this Pacorus who fortified and enlarged the city of Ctesiphon. (Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6.)

arsaces XXV., chosroes, called by Dion Cassius osroes, a younger son of Vologeses I., succeeded his brother Pacorus during the reign of Trajan. Soon after his accession, he invaded Ar­menia, expelled Exedares, the son of Tiridates, who had been appointed king by the R.omans, and gave the crown to his nephew Parthamasiris, the son of his brother Pacorus. Trajan hastened in person to the east, conquered Armenia, and reduced it to the form of a Roman province. Parthama­siris also fell into his hands. After concluding peace with Augarus, the ruler of Eclessa, Trajan overran the northern part of Mesopotamia, took Nisibis and several other cities, and, after a most glorious campaign, returned to Antioch to winter,


A. d. 114. In consequence of these successes, he received the surname ofParthicus from the soldiers and of Optimus from the senate. Parthia was at this time torn by civil commotions, which rendered the conquests of Trajan all the easier. In the spring of the following year, a. d. 115, he crossed the Tigris, took Ctesiphon and Seleuceia, and made Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Babylonia, Roman provinces. After these conquests, he sailed down the Tigris to the Persian gulf and the Indian ocean; but during his absence there was a general revolt of the Parthians. He immediately sent against them two of his generals, Maximus and Lusius, A. d. 116, the former of whom was defeated and slain by Chosroes, but the latter met with more success, and regained the cities of Nisibis, Edessa, and Seleuceia, as well as others which had revolted. Upon his return to Ctesiphon, Tra­jan appointed Parthamaspates king of Parthia, and then withdrew from the country to invade Arabia. Upon the death of Trajan, however, in the follow­ing year (a. d. 117), the Parthians expelled Par­thamaspates, and placed upon the throne their former king, Chosroes. But Hadrian, who had succeeded Trajan, was unwilling to engage in a war with the Parthians, and judged it more pru­dent to give up the conquests which Trajan had gained; he accordingly withdrew the Roman gar­risons from Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Babylonia, and made the Euphrates, as before, the eastern boundary of the Roman empire. The exact time of Chosroes' death is unknown; but during the remainder of his reign there was no war between the Parthians and the Romans, as Hadrian culti­vated friendly relations with the former. (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 17—33 ; Aurel. Vict. Caes. c. 13 ; Pans. v. 12. § 4; Spartian, Hadr. c. 21.)

arsaces XXVII., vologeses II., succeeded his father Chosroes, and reigned probably from about A. d. 122 to 149. In a. d. 133, Media, which was then subject to the Parthians, was over­run by a vast horde of Alani (called by Dion Cas­sius, Albani)? who penetrated also into Armenia and Cappadocia, butiwere induced to retire, partly by the presents of Vologeses, and partly through fear of Arrian, the Roman governor of Cappadocia. (Dion Cass. Ixix. 15.) During the reign of Ha­drian, Vologeses continued at peace with the Ro­mans ; and on the accession of Antoninus Pius, A. d. 138, he sent an embassy to Rome, to present the new emperor with a golden crown, which event is commemorated on a coin of Antoninus. (Eckhel, vii. pp. 5, 10, 11.) These friendly relations, how­ever, did not continue undisturbed. Vologeses solicited from Antoninus the restoration of the royal throne of Parthia, which had been taken by Trajan, but did not obtain his request. He made preparations to invade Armenia, but was deterred from doing so by the representations of Antoninus. (Capitol. Anton. Pius, c. 9.)

arsaces XXVIII., vologeses III., probably a son of the preceding, began to reign according to coins (Eckhel, iii. p. 538), a. d. 149. During the reign of Antoninus, he continued at peace with the Romans; but on the death of this em­peror, the long threatened Avar at length broke out. In a. d. 162, Vologeses invaded Armenia9 and cut to pieces a Roman legion, with its com­mander Severianus, at Elegeia, in Armenia. He then entered Syria, defeated Aticlius Cornelianus, the governor of Syria, and laid waste every thing

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