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epeet, and gave him his daughter Rhodogune in marriage; but the marriage appears not to have been solemnized till the accession of his son Phraa-tes II. Mitliridates died during the captivity of Demetrius, between b. c. loo and 130. He is described as a just and upright prince, who did not give way to pride and luxury. He introduced among his people the best laws and usages, which he found among the nations he had conquered. (Justin, xli. 6; Oros. v. 4; Strab. xl pp. 516, 517,524, &c.: Appian, Syr. 67; Justin, xxxvi. 1, xxxviii. 9 ; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 9 ; 1 Maccab. c. 14; Diod. Exc. p. 597, ed. Wess.) The reverse of the annexed coin has the inscription MEFAAOT APSAKOT 4>IAEAAHNQ2.

arsaces VII., phraates II., the son of the preceding, was attacked by Antiochus VII. (Sidetes), who defeated Phraates in three great bat­tles, but was at length conquered by him, and lost his life in battle, b. c. 128. [See p. 199, a.] Phraa­tes soon met with the same fate. The Scythians, who had been invited by Antiochus to assist him a,gainst Phraates, did not arrive till after the fall of the former; but in the battle which followed, the Greeks whom Phraates had taken in the war against Antiochus, and whom he now kept in his service, deserted from him, and revenge.d the ill-treatment they had suffered, by the death of Phraa­tes and the destruction of his army. (Justin, xxxviii. 10, xlii. 1.) The reverse of the annexed coin has the inscription BA5IAEn2 MEFAAOT AP2AKOT ©EOHATOPOS NIKATOPO2.

arsaces VIII., artabanus II., the youngest brother of Arsaces VI., and the youngest son of Arsaces IV., and consequently the uncle of the preceding, fell in battle against the Thogarii or Tochari, apparently after a short reign. (Justin, xlii. 2.)

arsaces IX., mithridates II., the son of the preceding, prosecuted many wars with success, and added many nations to the Parthian empire, whence he obtained the surname of Great. He defeated the Scythians in several battles, and also carried on war against Artavasdes, king of Armenia. It was in his reign tha+ the Romans first had any official communication with Parthia. Mitliridates sent an ambassador, Orobazns, to Sulla, who had come into Asia b. c. 92, in order to restore Ariobar-zanes I. to Cappadocia, and requested alliance with the Romans, which seems to have been granted. (Justin, xlii. 2; Plut. Sulla, 5.) Justin (xlii, 4)



has confounded this king with Mithridates III., i. e. Arsaces XIII.

arsaces X., mnascires? The successor of Arsaces IX. is not known. Vaillant conjectures that it was the Mnascires mentioned by Lucian. (Macrob. 16), who lived to the age of ninety-six; but this is quite uncertain.

arsaces XL, sanatroces, as he is called on coins. Phlegon calls him Sinatruces ; Appian, Sintricus; and Lucian, Sinatrocles. He had lived as an exile among the Scythian people called Sacauraces, and was placed by them upon the throne of Parthia, when he was already eighty years of age. He reigned seven years, and died while Luculltis was engaged in the war against Tigranes, about b. c. 70. (Lucian, Macrob. 15; Phlegon, ap. Phot. Cod, 97, p. 84, ed. Bekker ; Appian, Mitlir. 104.)

arsaces XII., phraates III., surnamed Oeos (Phlegon, I. c.), the son of the preceding. Mithridates of Pontus and Tigranes applied to Phraates for assistance in their war against the Romans, although Phraates was at enmity with Tigranes, because he had deprived the Parthian empire of Nisibis and part of Mesopotamia. Among the fragments of Sallust (Hist. lib. iv.) we have a letter purporting to be written by Mithridates to Phraates on this occasion. Lucullus, as soon as he heard of this embassy, also sent one to Phraates, who dismissed both with fair promises, but accord­ing to Dion Cassius, concluded an alliance with the Romans. He did not however send any assistance to the Romans, and eventually remained neutral. (Memnon, ap. Phot. Cod. 224, p. 239, ed. Bekker; DionCass. xxxv. 1, 3, comp. 6; Appian,Mitlir. 87; Plut. Lucull. 30.) When Pompey succeeded Lu­cullus in the command, b. c. 66, he renewed the alliance with Phraates, to whose court meantime the youngest son of Tigranes, also called Tigranes, had fled after the murder of his two brothers by their father. Phraates gave the young Tigranes his daughter in marriage, and was induced by his son-in-law to invade Armenia. He advanced as far as Artaxata, and then returned to Parthia, leaving his son-in-law to besiege the city. As soon as he had left Armenia, Tigranes attacked his son and defeated him in battle. The young Tigranes then fled to his grandfather Mithridates, and afterwards to Pompey, when he found the former was unable to assist him. The young Tigranes conducted Pompey against his father, who surrendered 011 his approach. Pompey then attempted to reconcile the father and the son, and promised the latter the sovereignty of Sophanene ; but as he shortly after offended Pompey, he was thrown into chains, and reserved for his triumph. When Phraates heard of this, he sent to the Roman general to demand the young man as his son-in-law, and to propose that the Euphrates should be the boundary between the Roman and Parthian dominions. But Pompey merely replied, that Tigranes was nearer to his father than his father-in-law, and that he would determine the boundary in accordance with what was just. (Dion Cass. xxxvi. 28, 34—36; Plut. Pomp. 33 ; Appian, Syr. 104, 105.) Matters now began to assume a threatening aspect between Phraates and Pompey, who had deeply injured the former by refusing to give him his usual title of "king of kings." But although Phraates marched into Armenia, and sent ambassadors to Pompey to bring many charges against him, and Tigranes, the

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