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aneorum Librorum Reliquiis, Regimontii, 1836,4to.; P. 0. Van der Chys, C&mmentarius Geoyraphicus in Arrianum, Leyden, 1828, 4to.) [L. S.]
ARRIANUS, a Roman jurisconsult, of uncer tain date. Pie probably lived under Trajan, and, according to the conjecture of Grotius, is perhaps the same person with the orator Arrianus, who corresponded with the younger Pliny. (Plin. Ep. i. 2, ii. 11,12, iv. 8, viii. 21.) He may also pos sibly be identical with the Arrianus Severus, prae- fectus aerarii, whose opinion concerning a consti tution Dim Tra/jani is cited by Aburnus Valens. (Dig. 49. tit. 14. s. 42.) He wrote a treatise de InterdietiS) of which the second book is quoted in the Digest in an extract from Ulpian. (Dig. 5. tit. 3. s. 1.1.) In that extract, Proculus, who lived under Tiberius, is mentioned in such a manner, that he might be supposed to have written after Arrianus. There is no direct extract from Arrianus in the Digest, though he is several times mentioned. (Majansius, vol. ii. p. 219 ; Zimmern, Rom. Rechts-Gesciiichte^ i. § 90.) [J. T. G.]
ARRIBAS, A'RRYBAS, ARYMBAS, or THARRYTAS ('Ap>'§as, Appugas, 'Apu,u£as, or ©appuras), a descendant of Achilles, and one of the early kings of the Molossiaus in Epeirus. When he came to the possession of the throne, he was yet very young, and being the last surviving member of the royal family, his education was conducted with great care, and he was sent to Athens with this view. On his return he dis played so much wisdom that he won the affection and admiration of his people. He framed for them a code of laws, and established a regular con stitution, with a senate and annual magistrates. The accounts of this king cannot, of course, be re ceived as historical, and he must be looked upon as one of the mythical ancestors of the royal house of the Molossians, to whom they ascribed the foundation of their political institutions. (Justin, xvii. 3; Plut. Pyrrli. 1; Paus. i. 11. § 1.) The grandfather of Pyrrhus also bore the name of Arymbas. (Diod. xvi. 72.) [L. S.]
ARRIUS. 1. Q. arrius, praetor, b.c. 72, defeated Crixus, the leader of the runaway slaves, and killed 20,000 of his men, but was afterwards conquered by Spaitacus. (Liv. Epit. 96.) In b.c. 71, Arrius was to have succeeded Verres as propraetor in Sicily (Cic. Verr.ii. 15, iv. 20; Pseudo-Ascon. in Cic. Div. p. 101, ed. Orelli), but died on his way to Sicily. (Schol. Gronov. in Cic. Div. p. 383, ed. Orelli.) Cicero (Brut. 69) says, that Arrius was of low birth, and without learning or talent, but rose to honour by his assiduity.
2. Q. arrius, a son of the preceding, was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulship, b. c. 59. (Cic. ad Ait. ii. 5, 7.) He was an intimate friend of Cicero (inVatin. 12, pro Mil. 17); but Cicero during his exile complains bitterly of the conduct of Arrius. (Ad Qu.fr. i. 3.)
ARRUNTIUS, a physician at Rome, who lived probably about the beginning or middle of the first century after Christ, and is mentioned by Pliny (If. N. xxix. 5) as having gained by his
practice the annual income of 250,000 sesterces (about 1953/. 2s. 6d.). This may give us some notion of the fortunes made by physicians at Rome about the beginning of the empire. [W. A. G.]
ARRUNTIUS. 1. arruntius, proscribed by the triumvirs, and killed, b. c. 43. His son escaped, but perished at sea, and his wife killed herself by voluntary starvation, when she heard of the death of her son. (Appian, B. C. iv. 21.)
2. arruntius, was also proscribed by the triumvirs in b. c. 43, but escaped to Pompey, and was restored to the state together with Pompey. (Appian, B. <7.iv.46 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 77.) This is probably the same Arruntius who commanded the left wing of the fleet of Octavianus at the battle of Actium, b. c. 31. (Veil. Pat. ii. 85; comp. Plut. Ant. 66.) There was a L. Arruntius, consul in b. c. 22 (Dion Cass, liv. 1), who appears to be the same person as the one mentioned above, and may perhaps also be the same as the L. Arruntius, the friend of Trebatius, whom Cicero mentions (ad Fam. vii. 18) in b. c. 53.
3. L. arruntius, son of the preceding, consul a. d. 6. Augustus was said to have declared in his last illness, that Arruntius was not unworthy of the empire, and would have boldness enough to seize it, if an opportunity presented. This, as well as his riches, talents, and reputation, rendered him an object of suspicion to Tiberius. In A. d. 15, when the Tiber had flooded a great part of the city, he was appointed to take measures to restrain it within its bed, and he consulted the senate on the subject. The province of Spain had been assigned to him, but Tiberius, through jealousy, kept him at Rome ten years after his appointment, and obliged him to govern the province by his legates. He was accused on one occasion by Aruseius and San-quinius, but was acquitted, and his accusers punished. He was subsequently charged in a. d. 37, as an accomplice in the crimes of Albucilla; and though his friends wished him to delay his death, as Tiberius was in his last illness, and could not recover, he refused to listen to their advice, as he knew the wickedness of Caligula, who would suc-ceeed to the empire, and accordingly put himself to death by opening his veins. (Tac. Ann. i. 8, 13, 76, 79, vi. 27, Hist. ii. 65, Ann. vi. 5, 7, 47, 48 ; Dion Cass. Iv. 25, Iviii. 27.)
It was either this Arruntius or his father, in all probability, who wrote a history of the first Punic war, in which he imitated the style of Sal-lust. (Senec. Epist. 114.)
ARRUNTIUS CELSUS. [celsus.] ARRU'NTIUS STELLA, [stella.] ARSA'CES ('Apo-cur^s), the name of the founder of the Parthian empire, which was also borne by all his successors, who were hence called the Ar-sacidae. Pott (Etyinologische Forschungen, ii. p. 172) supposes that it signifies the u Shah or Kiiig of the Arii ;" but it occurs as a Persian name long before the time of the Parthian kings. Aeschylus (Pers. 957) speaks of an Arsaces, who perished in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece ; and Ctesias (Pers. cc. 49, 53, 57, ed. Lion) says, that Arsaces was the original name of Artaxerxes Mnemon.
arsaces I,, is variously represented by the ancient writers as a Scythian, a Bactrian, or a Parthian. (Strab. xi. p. 515; Arrian, ap. Phot. Cod. 58, p. 17, ed. Bekker; Herodian, vi. 2; Moses Chor. i. 7.) Justin (xli. 4) says, that he