Scanned text contains errors.
retreat. (Thuc. iv. 79, 83, 124.) Comp. Strab. vii. 326, &c.; Aristot. Pol. v. 8. § 11, ed. Schneid.
[A. H. C.]
ARRHIDAEUS ('A^ScuW) or ARIDAEUS ('AfliScuos). 1. A half-brother of Alexander the Great, son of Philip and a female dancer, Philinna of Larissa, was of imbecile understanding, which was said to have been occasioned by a potion administered to him when a boy by the jealous Olympias. Alexander had removed Arrhidaeus from Macedonia, perhaps through fear of his mother Olympias, but had not entrusted him with any civil or military command. He was at Babylon at the time of Alexander's death, b. c. 323, and was elected king under the name of Philip. The young Alexander, the infant son of Roxana, who was born shortly afterwards, was associated with him in the government. [alexander IV., p. 122, b.] In the following year, b. c. 322, Arrhidaeus married Eurydice [eurydice], and was from this time completely under the direction of his wife. On their return to Macedonia, Eurydice attempted to obtain the supreme power in opposition to Polysperchon. Roxana and her infant son fled to Epeirus, and Olympias induced Aeacides, king of Epeirus, to invade Macedonia in order to support Polysperchon. Aeacides was successful in his undertaking : Arrhidaeus and Eurydice were taken prisoners, and put to death by order of Olympias, b. c. 317. In the following year, Cas-sander conquered Olympias, and interred the bodies of Arrhidaeus and Eurydice with royal pomp at Aegae, and celebrated funeral games to their honour. (Pint. Alex. 77; Dexippus, ap. Phot. Cod. 82 ; Arrian, ap. Phot. Cod. 92 ; Justin. ix. 8, xiii. 2, xiv. 5; Diod. xviii. 2, xix. 11, 52 ; Paus. i. 6. § 3, 25. §§ 3, 5, viii. 7. § 5; Athen. iv. p. 155.)
2. One of Alexander's generals, was entrusted with the conduct of Alexander's funeral to Egypt. On the murder of Perdiccas in Egypt, b. c. 321, lie and Pithon were appointed regents, but through the intrigues of Eurydice, were obliged soon afterwards to resign their office at Triparadisus in Upper Syria. On the division of the provinces which was made at this place, Arrhidaeus obtained the Helles-pontine Phrygia. In b. c. 319? after the death of Antipater, Arrhidaeus made an unsuccessful attack upon Cyzicus; and Antigonus gladly seized this pretext to require him to resign his satrapy. Arrhidaeus, however, refused, and shut himself up in Cius. (Justin, xiii. 4 ; Arrian, ap. Phot. Cod. 92, p. 71, a, 28, &c.5 ed. Bekker; Diod. xviii. 36, 39, 51, 52, 72.)
3. One of the kings of Macedonia during the time of the anarchy, b. c. 279. (Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. i. 38, p. 171.)
ARRIA. 1. The wife of Caecina Paetus. When her husband was ordered by the emperor •Claudius to put an end to his life, a. d. 42, and hesitated to do so, Arria stabbed herself, handed the dagger to her husband, and said, "Paetus, it does not pain me." (Plin. Ep. iii. 16 ; Dion Cass. Ix. 16; Martial, i. 14 ; Zonaras, xi. 9.)
2. The daughter of the preceding, and the wife cf Thrasea, who was put to death by Nero, A. d. 67. (Tac. Ann. xvi. 34.)
3. A Platonic female philosopher (Galen, de Tlier. ad Pison. c. 2. vol. ii. p. 485, ed. Basil.), to whom Menagius supposes that Diogenes Laertius dedicated his lives of the philosophers. (Menagius, flistor. Mulier. Philosop7iarum9 c. 47.)
ARRIA GENS. The name Arrius does not occur till the first century b. c., but is rather common under the emperors. The coins of this gens which are extant, of which a specimen is given below, bear the name Q. Arrius Secundus; but it is quite uncertain who he was. On the reverse is a spear between a crown of laurel and a kind of altar. (Eckhel, v. p. 143.)
ARRIANUS ('A^iawfe). 1. A Greek poet, who, according to Suidas (s. v.), made a Greek translation in hexameter verse of Virgil's Georgics, and wrote an epic poem on the exploits of Alexander the Great ('AAe£az>§pias), in twenty-four rhapsodies, and a poem on Attains of Pergamus. This last statement is, as some critics think, not without difficulties, for, it is said, it is not clear how a poet, who lived after the time of Virgil, could write a poem on Attains of Pergamus, unless it was some of the later descendants of the family of the Attali. But it might as well be said, that no man can write a poem upon another unless he be his contemporary. It is, however, not improbable that Suidas may have confounded two poets of the same name, or the two poets Adrianus and Arrianus, the former of whom is known to have written an Alexandrias. [adrianus.]
2. A Greek historian, who lived at, or shortly after, the time of Maximin the younger, and wrote a history of this emperor and the Gordiani. It is not improbable that he may be the same as the L. Annius Arrianus, who is mentioned as consul in A. d. 243. (Capitol. Maximin. Jun. 7, Tres Gord. 2.)
3. A Greek astronomer, who probably lived as early as the time of Eratosthenes, and who wrote a work on meteors, of which a fragment is preserved in Joannes Philoponus's Commentary on Aristotle's Meteorologica. He also wrote a little work on comets, to prove that they foreboded neither good nor evil. (Agatharchid. ap. Phot. p. 460, b. ed. Bekker.) Some writers ascribe the latter work to Arrianus of Nicomedeia. A few fragments of it are preserved in Stobaeus. (Eclog. Phys. i. 29 and 30.)
4. Of Nicomedeia in Bithynia, was born towards the end of the first century after Christ. He was a pupil and friend of Epictetus, through whose influence he became a zealous and active admirer of the Stoic philosophy, and more especially of the practical part of the system. He first attracted attention as a philosopher by publishing the lectures (Starpigai) of his master. This he seems to have done at Athens ; and the Athenians were so much delighted with them, that they honoured him with their franchise. Arrian, as we shall see hereafter, had chosen Xenophon as his model in writing, and the Athenians called him the young Xenophon, either from the resemblance of his style to that of Xenophon, or more probably