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while yet a catechumen, his celebrated work against the Pagans, in seven books (Libri septem adversus Gentes)) which we still possess. The time when he wrote it, is not quite certain : some assign its composition to the years A. d. 297 and 298, but it is more probable that it was written in or shortly after the year a. d. 303, since it contains some allusions (as iv. 36) to the persecution of the Chris­tians by Diocletian, which commenced in that year. The work is a vindication of Christianity, and the author first refutes the charges of the Pagans against the Christian religion, especially the one which was then frequently brought against it, that the sufferings and calamities of the times were only the fruits of Christianity. He then proceeds to prove, with great learning, acuteness, and eloquence, that polytheism is irreconcilable with good sense and reason, and tends to demoralize mankind. In the sixth book he describes the superiority of the Christian religion ; and the last contains a justifica­tion of the Christian views respecting sacrifices, and a comparison of the Christian notions of the Deity and divine things with those of the Pagans. In writing this work, Arnobius was evidently animated by a genuine zeal to establish the truth of Christianity, but was free from the eccentricity and enthusiasm of Tertullian. His style is plain and lucid ; though animated and sometimes rheto­rical, it is yet not free from harsh and barbarous ex­pressions : he treats of his subject with calmness and dignity, and is on the whole a pleasing writer, and superior to his contemporaries. As regards his knowledge of Christianity, it is difficult to form a decided opinion, for it was either his intention to set forth only the main doctrines of Christianity against the pagan mythology, or he possessed but a limited knowledge of the Christian religion. The latter is indeed the more probable, since he wrote his work when yet a catechumen. What he says in his second book aboat the nature and immorta­lity of the soul, is not in accordance with Christian views, but with those of the Gnostics, and at a later time would have been regarded as heretical. The Old Testament seems to have been altogether un­known to him, and he shows no acquaintance with the New, except so far as the history of Christ is concerned. In regard to heathen antiquity, on the other hand, its religion and modes of worship, the work exhibits most extensive and minute learning, and is one of our best sources of information re­specting the religions of antiquity. It is for this reason that Vossius calls him the Varro of the early Christian writers. The arrangement of his thoughts is philosophical, though not always suffi­ciently strict. Arnobius is a writer worthy to be studied not only by theologians, but also by philo-logers. He is not known to have written anything besides his book against the Gentiles; there are, however, some works which have sometimes been ascribed to him, though they manifestly belong to a later writer or writers of the same name. (See the following article.)

The first edition of Arnobius appeared at Rome in 1542 or 1543, fol., and in it the Octavius of Minutius Felix is printed as the eighth book. The next was edited by S. Gelenius, Basel, 1546, 8vo. The most important among the subsequent editions are those of Antwerp (1582, 8vo., with Canter's notes), of F. Ursinus (Rome, 1583, 4to=, reprinted with notes by Stewechius, Antwerp, 1604, 8vo.), D, Heraldus (Paris, 1605, 8vo.), G. Elmenhorsl



(Hamburg, 1610, fol.), the Variorum edition (Ley- den, 1651, 4to.), and that of Prior (Paris, 1666, fol.). It is also contained in the Bibliotheca Pa- trum, vol. iii. p. 430, &c., ed. Lugdun. and in Gal- landi's edition, vol. iv. p. 133, &c. The best edi­ tion of Arnobius, which contains the best notes of all the earlier commentators, is that of J. C. Orelli, Leipzig, 1816, 2 vols. 8vo., to which an appendix was published in 1817, 8vo. (Compare Baronius, ad Ann. 302; Du Pin, Nouv. Bibl. des Auteurs Eccles. i. p. 203, &c. ed. 2, Paris, 1690; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 112, ed. Lend.; Bahr. Die ChrislL Rom. Theol. p. 65, &c.) [L. S.]

ARNOBlUS,~the Younger, is usually placed about a. d. 460, and is believed to have been a bishop or presbyter in Gaul. He is known to us only as the author of one or two works of very little importance, which have sometimes been attri­buted to Arnobius the elder. We possess under ais name an allegorical commentary on the Psalms, which is inscribed to Leontius, bishop of Aries, and Rusticus, bishop of Narbonne. This commen­tary, though the notes are very brief, contains suf­ficient evidence that the author was a Semipelagian. It was first printed at Basel (1522, 4to.) together with Erasmus's commentary on Psalm ii., and was reprinted at Cologne, 1532, 8vo. A much better edition than cither of these is that by L. de la Barre, Paris, 1639, 8vo., which also contains some notes by the same Arnobius on several passages of the Gospels, which had been published separately before by G. Cognant, Basel, 1543, 8vo. The commentary of Arnobius is also contained in the Bibl. Patr. (Lugdun. vol. viii.), where is also as­signed to him a work entitled "Altercatio cum Serapione Aegyptio;" but the principles of the Arnobius who speaks in this Altercatio are strictly those of St. Augustin, and it cannot be the work of a Semipelagian. Sirmond has endeavoured to shew, that our Arnobius the Younger is the author of the work which bears the title Praedestinatus^ and which has come down to us as the production of an anonymous writer; but his arguments are not satisfactory. (Du Pin, Nouv. Bibl. des A ut. Eccles. iii. 2, p. 219 ; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 360, ed. Lond.; Bahr, Die Christl. Rom. Theol. p. 378.) [L.S.]

C. ARPINEIUS, a Roman knight, a friend of Q. Titurius, sent to have a conference with Am-biorix, b. c. 54. (Caes. B. G. v. 27, &c.)

ARPOXAIS fA/m^cus), the son of Targitaus, was the ancestor, according to the Scythians, of the Scythian people, called Auchatae. (Herod, iv. 5 6.)

'a'rra'chion ('a/s^w), of Phigaiea in

Arcadia, a celebrated Pancratiast, conquered in the Olympic games in the 52nd, 53rd and 54th Olym­piads. In the last Olympiad he was unfairly killed by his antagonist, and was therefore crowned and proclaimed as conqueror, although dead. (Paus. viii. 40. § 2.) Philostratus (Imag. ii. 6) calls him Arrichion, and Africanus (ap. Euseb. Chron. p. 50) Arichion.

ARRHIBAEUS ('A/5,5<&uos), king or chieftain of the Macedonians of Lyncus, is mentioned by Thucydides, in the eighth and ninth years of the Peloponnesian war, as in revolt against his sove­reign, king Perdiccas. (Ttrac. ii. 99.) It was to reduce him that Perdiccas sent for Brasidas (b. c. 424), and against him took place the unsuccessful joint expedition, in which Perdiccas deserted Bra­sidas, and Brasidas effected his bold and skilful

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