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probably because he was bom at Cydonia and practised and taught his art in Sicyon ; and Aristocles the younger, of Sicyon, who was the grandson of the former, son of Cleoetas, and brother of Canachus : and that these artists founded a school of sculpture at Sicyon, which secured an hereditary reputation, and of which we have the heads for seven generations, namely, Aristocles, Cleoetas, Aristocles and Canachus, Synnoon, Ptolichus, Sostratus, and Pantias.
There is some difficulty in determining the age of these artists; but, supposing the date of Canachus to be fixed at about 540—508 b. c. [canachus], we have the date of his brother, the younger Aristocles, and allowing 30 years to a generation, the elder Aristocles must have lived about 600— 568 b. c. Bockh (Corp. Inscrip. i. p. 39) places him immediately before the period when Zancle was first called Messene, but there is nothing in the words of Pausanias to require such a restriction. By extending the calculation to the other artists mentioned above, we get the following table of dates:
1. Aristocles flourished 600 to 568 b. c.
4. Synnoon „ 510—478 ,
5. Ptolichus „ 480—448 „
6. Sostratus „ 450—418 „
7. Pantias „ 420—388 „ These dates are found to agree very well with all that we know of the artists. (See the respective articles.) Sillig (Catal. Art. s.v.) gives a table which does not materially differ from the above. He calculates the dates at 564, 536, 508, 480, 452, 424, and 396 b. c. respectively. In this computation it has been assumed that the elder Canachus was the brother of the younger Aristo cles, and that Pantias was the seventh in order from the elder Aristocles. Any other supposition would throw the whole matter into confusion.
Pausanias mentions, as a work of the elder Aristocles, a group in bronze representing Hercules struggling for a girdle with an Amazon on horse back, which was dedicated at Olympia by Evagoras of Zancle (v. 25. § 6); and, as a work of the younger, a group in bronze of Zeus and Ganymede, dedicated at Olympia by Gnothis, a Thessalian. (v. 24. § 1.) The Muse by the latter, mentioned above (4), was in bronze, held a lyre (%eAus), and was intended to represent the Muse of the diatonic genus of music. [P. S.]
ARISTOCLIDES, a painter mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 11. s. 40) as one of those who deserved to be ranked next to the masters in their art. His age and country are unknown. He painted the temple of Apollo at Delphi. [C. P. M.]
2. King of Orchomenus in Arcadia, son of Hice-tas, and grandson of the preceding, was the leader of the Arcadians in the second Messenian war, when they espoused with other nations in the Peloponnesus the side of the Messenians. He was bribed by the Lacedaemonians, and was guilty of treachery at the battle of the Trench; and when tnis was discovered some years afterwards, he was
stoned to death by the Arcadians. His family was deprived of the sovereignty according to Pausanias, or completely destroyed according to Poly-bius; but the latter statement at all events cannot be correct, as we find that his son Aristodamus ruled over Orchomenus and a great part of Arcadia. The date of Aristocrates appears to have been about b. c. 680—640. (Strab. viii. p. 362; Paus. iv. 17. § 4, 22. § 2, &c., viii. 5. § 8 ; Polyb. iv. 33 ; Plut. de sera Num. Vinci, c. 2; Miiller, Aeginetica, p. 65, Dor. i. 7. § 11.)
3. The son of Scellias. See below.
5. General of the Rhodians, about b. c. 154, apparently in the war against the Cretans. (Polyb. xxxiii. 9, with Scweighauser's note.)
6. An historian, the son of Hipparchus, and a Spartan, wrote a wTork on Lacedaemonian affairs (Aa/cow/ca), of which Athenaeus (iii. p. 82, e.) quotes the fourth book, and which is also referred to by Plutarch (Lycurg. 4, 31, Pliilop. 16), and other writers. (Steph. s. v. 'ASdvris; Schol. ad Soph. Tracli. 270.)
ARISTOCRATES ('ApurroKpdrTis), an Athe nian of wealth and influence (Plat. Gorg. p. 472,a.), son of Scellias, attached himself to the oligarchical party, and was a member of the government of the Four Hundred, which, however, he was, together with Theramenes, a main instrument in overthrow ing. (Thuc. viii. 89, 92 ; Lys. c. Erat. p. 126 j Demosth. c. Theocr. p. 1343.) Aristophanes (Av. 126) refers to him with a punning allusion to his name and politics. In 407, when Alcibiades, on his return to Athens, was made commander-in- chief, Aristocrates and Adeimantus were elected generals of the land forces under him. (Xen. Hell. i. 4. § 21 ; comp. Diod. xiii. 69; Nep. Ale. c. 7.) In the same year, Aristocrates was appointed one of the ten commanders who superseded Alcibiades, and he was among the six who were brought to trial and executed after the battle of Arginusae, b. c. 406. (Xen. Hell. i. 5. § 16, 6. § 29, 7. § 2, 34 ; Diod. xiii. 74, 101.) [E. E.]
ARISTOCRATES ('ApurroKpdriis), a gram marian, whose remedy for the tooth-ache is pre served by Andromachus (ap. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Loc. v. 5, vol. xii. pp. 878, 879), and who must therefore have lived some time in or before the first century after Christ. He is also mentioned in the first volume of Cramer's Anecdota Ch^aeca Parisiensia, p. 395. [W. A. G.]
ARISTOCREON ('Apio-To/cpecc^), a son of the sister of Chrysippus, and a pupil of .the latter. (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 185 ; Plut. de Stoic. Repugn, p. 1033.) Whether this is the same Aristocreon, as the one who wrote a description of the world or at Least of Egypt, is uncertain. (Plin. H. N. v. 9. s. 10, vi. 29. s. 35, 30. s.-35; Aelian, H. A. vii. 40.)
ARISTOCRITUS ('Apurr6KptTos). 1- Fatner of Ly sander. [ aristocl bit us. ]
ARISTOCYPRUS ('Apurr6Kvirpos)9 son of Philocyprus, whom Solon visited, the king of Soli in Cyprus, fell in the battle against the Persians, b. c. 498. (Herod, v. 113.)