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AMSTOBtfLUS.

sefes, whose influence she had restored ; arid after her death, b. c. 70, he made war against his eldest brother Hyrcanus, and obtained from him the resignation of the crown and the high-priesthood, chiefly through the aid of his father's friends, whom Alexandra had placed in the several fort­resses of the country to save them from the ven­geance of the Pharisees. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 16, xiv. 1. § 2; Sett. Jud. i. 5, 6. § 1.) In b. c. 65 Judaea was invaded by Aretas, king of Arabia Petraea, with whom, at the instigation of Antipater the Idumaean, Hyrcanus had taken refuge. By him Aristobulus was defeated in a battle and be­sieged in Jerusalem ; but Aretas was obliged to raise the siege by Scaurus and Gabinius, Pompey's lieutenants, whose intervention Aristobulus had purchased. (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 2, 3. § 2; Sell. Jud. i. 6. §§ 2, 3.) In b. c. 63, he pleaded his cause before Pompey at Damascus, but, finding him dis­posed to favour Hyrcanus, he returned to Judaea and prepared for war. On Pompey's approach, Aristobulus, who had fled to the fortress of Alex-andreion, was persuaded to obey his summons and appear before him ; and, being compelled to sign an order for the surrender of his garrisons, he withdrew in impotent discontent to Jerusalem. Pompey still advanced, and Aristobulus again met him and made submission ; but, his friends in the city refusing to perform the terms, Pompey be­sieged and took Jerusalem, and carried away Aris­tobulus and his children as prisoners. (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 3, 4 ; Bell. Jud. i. 6, 7 ; Pint. Pomp. cc. 39, 45 ; Strab. xvi. p. 762 ; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 15, 16.) Appian (Bell. Miili. c. 117) erroneously represents him as having been put to death imme­diately after Pompey's triumph. In B. c. 57, he escaped from his confinement at Rome with his son Antigonus, and, returning to Judaea, was joined by large numbers of his countrymen and renewed the war; but he was besieged and taken at Machaerus, the fortifications of which he was attempting to restore, and was sent back to Rome by Gabinius. (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 6. § 1; Bell. Jud. 1. 8. § 6; Plut. Ant. c. 3 ; Dion Cass. xxxix. 56.) In b. c. 49, he was again released by Julius Cae­sar, who sent him into Judaea to forward his in­terests there; he was, however, poisoned on the way by some of Pompey's party. (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 7. § 4; Bell. Jud. i. 9. § 1; Dion Cass. xli. 18.)

3. Grandson of No. 2, was the son of Alexan­der and brother of Herod's wife Mariamne. His mother, Alexandra, indignant at Herod's having conferred the high-priesthood on the obscure Ana-nelus, endeavoured to obtain that office for her son from Antony through the influence of Cleopatra. Herod, fearing the consequences of this application, and urged by Mariamne's entreaties, deposed Ananelus and made Aristobulus high-priest, the latter being only 17 years old at the time. The king, however, still suspecting Alexandra, and keeping a strict and annoying watch upon her movements, she renewed her complaints and de­signs against him with Cleopatra, and at length made an attempt to escape into Egypt with her son. Herod discovered this, and affected to par­don it; but soon after he caused Aristobulus to be treacherously drowned at Jericho, b. c. 35. (Jo­seph. Ant. xv. 2, 3; Bell. Jud. i. 22. § 2.)

4. One of the sons of Herod the Great by Mariamne, was sent with his brother Alexander to

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Rome, and educated in the house of Pollio. (Jo­seph. Ant. xv. 10. § 1») On their return to Judaea, the suspicions of Herod were excited against them by their brother Antipater [anti-pater] , aided by Pheroras and their aunt Salome, though Berenice, the daughter of the latter, was married to Aristobulus ; the young men themselves supplying their enemies with a handle against them by the indiscreet expression of their indignation at their mother's death. In b. c. 11, they were ac­cused by Herod at Aquileia before Augustus, through whose mediation, however, he was recon­ciled to them. Three years after, Aristobulus was again involved with his brother in a charge of plotting against their father, but a second reconci­liation was effected by Archelaus, king of Cappa-docia, the father-in-law of Alexander. A third accusation, through the arts of Eurycles, the Lace­daemonian adventurer, proved fatal: by permis­sion of Augustus, the two young men were arraigned by Herod before a council convened at Berytus (at which they were not even allowed to be present to defend themselves), and, being con­demned, were soon after strangled at Sebaste, B. c. 6. (Joseph. Ant. xvi. 1—4, 8, 10, 11 ; Sell. Jud. i. 23—27 ; comp. Strab. xvi. p. 765.)

5. Surnamed "the Younger" (6 vecerepus, Joseph. Ant. xx. 1. § 2) was son of Aristobulus and Bere­nice, and grandson of Herod the Great. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5. § 4; Bell. Jud. i. 28. § 1.) Himself and his two brothers,—Agrippa I., and Herod the future king of Chalcis, — were educated at Rome together with Claudius, who was afterwards em­peror, and who appears to have always regarded Aristobulus with great favour. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5. § 4, 6. § 1, xx. 1. § 2.) He lived at enmity with his brother Agrippa, and drove him from the pro­tection of Flaccus, proconsul of Syria, by the charge of having been bribed by the Damascenes to support their cause with the proconsul against the Sidonians. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 6. § 3.) When Caligula sent Petronius to Jerusalem to.set up his statues in the temple, we find Aristobulus joining in the remonstrance against the measure. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 8; Bell. Jud. ii. 10; Tac.Hist. v. 9.) He died as he had lived, in a private station (Joseph. Sell. Jud. ii. 11. § 6), having, as appears from the letter of Claudius to the Jews in Josephus (Ant. xx. 1. § 2), survived his brother Agrippa, whose death took place in A. d. 44. He was married to lotapa, a princess of Emessa, by whom he left a daughter of the same name. (Joseph. Ant, xviii. 5. § 4; Bell. Jud. ii. 11. § 6.)

6. Son of Herod king of Chalcis, grandson of the Aristobulus who was strangled at Sebaste, and great-grandson of Herod the Great. In A. d. 55, Nero made Aristobulus king of Armenia Minor, in order to secure that province from the Parthians, and in a. d. 61 added to his dominions some por­tion of the Greater Armenia which had been given to Tigranes. (Joseph. Ant. xx. 8. § 4; Tac. Ann. xiii. 7, xiv. 26.) Aristobulus appears als<v(Joseph. Bell. Jud. vii. 7. § 1) to have obtained from the Romans his father's kingdom of Chalcis, which had been taken from his cousin Agrippa II., in. a. d. 52; and he is mentioned as joining Caesennius Paetus, proconsul of Syria, in the war against Antiochus, king of Commagene, in the 4th year of Vespasian, A. d. 73. (Joseph. I. c.) He was mar­ried to Salome, daughter of the infamous Herodias, by whom lie had three sons, Herod, Agrippa, and

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