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ARISTOBULUS.

is sensation, is the foundation of Locked modern ideology, though he did not perceive its connexion with the consequences to which it led the Cyre-naics. To revive these vvas reserved for Hume.

The ancient authorities on this subject are Dio­genes Laertius, ii. 65, &c.; Sextus Empiricus, adv. Math. vii. 11 ; the places in Xenophon and Aris­totle already referred to; Cic. Tusc. iii. 13, 22, •Acad. iv. 7, 46 ; Euseb. Praep. Evang. xiv. 18, &c. The chief modern works are, Kunhardt, Dissertatio philos.-Jbistorica de Aristippi Pliilosopfiia morali, Helmstadt, 1795, 4to. ; Wieland, Aristipp und Einige seiner Zeitgenossen, Leipz., 1800-1802; Ritter, Gescldchte der Philosophie, vii. 3 ; Brucker, Historia Critica Philosophiae, ii. 2, 3. [G. E. L. C.]

ARISTO ('Apicrrw), the best, a surname of Artemis at Athens. (Pans. i. 29. § 2.) [L. S.]

T. ARISTO, a distinguished Roman jurist, who lived under the emperor Trajan, and was a friend of the Younger Pliny. He is spoken of by Pliny (Epist. 22) in terms of the highest praise, as not only an excellent man and profound scholar, but a lawyer thoroughly acquainted with private and public law, and perfectly skilled in the practice of his profession—in short, a living TJiesaurus Juris. Of his merits as an author, Pliny does not speak; and though, his works are occasionally mentioned in the Digest, there is no direct extract from any of them in that compilation. He wrote notes on the Libri Posteriorum of Labeo, on Cassius, whose pupil he had been, and on Sabinus. "Aristo in decretis Frontianis" or Frontinianis, is once cited in the Digest (29. tit. 2. s. ult.) ; but what those decreta were has never been satisfactorily explained. He corresponded with his contemporary jurists, Celsus and Neratius (Dig. 19. tit. 2. s. 19. § 2, 20. tit. 3. s. 3, 40. tit. 7. s. 29. § 1) ; and it ap­ pears to us to be probable that many of the responsa and epistolae of the Roman jurisconsults were not opinions upon cases occurring in actual practice, but answers to the hypothetical questions of pupils and legal friends. Other works, besides those which we have mentioned, have been attributed to him without sufficient cause. Some, for example, have inferred from a passage in Gellius (xi. 18), that he wrote de furtis; and, from passages in the Digest (24. tit. 3. s, 44. pr.; 8. tit. 5. s. 8. § 5; 23. tit. 2. s. 40), that he published books under the name Digesta and Responsa. In philosophy, this model of a virtuous lawyer is described by Pliny as a genuine disciple of the Porch. He has been usually supposed to belong to the legal sect of Proculeians [capito], though, upon one point at least (Dig. 28. tit. 5. s. 19), his opinion differed from the Proculeian Pegasus, and accorded with the Sabinian Javolenus. (Strauch, Vitae JCtorum, No. 12 ; Grotius, 2, 3, in Franck's Vitae Tripertitae JCtorum Veterum, Hal. 1718 ; Heinec. Hist. Jur. Rom. § 260, 1; Zimmern, Rom. Rechts-Gescldclde^ vol. i. § 89.) [J. T. G.]

ARISTO. [ariston.]

ARISTOBULE ('Apiaro§oiJA?7), the best ad­ viser, a surname of Artemis, to whom Themistocles built a temple at Athens under this name ; and in it he dedicated his own statue. (Pint. Themist. 22.) [L. S.]

ARISTOBULUS (•Apio-roGovKo^. 1. Of Cassandreia, the son of Aristobulus, one of the com­panions of Alexander the Great in his Asiatic con­quests, wrote a history of Alexander, which was one of the chief sources used by Arrian. in the coin-

AR1STOBULUS.

position of his work. Aristobulus lived to the age of ninety, and did not begin to write his history till he was eighty-four. (Lucian, Macrob. 22.) His work is also frequently referred to by Athe-naeus (ii. p. 43, d. vi. p. 251, a. x. p. 434, d. xii. pp. 513, f. 530, b.), Plutarch (Alex. cc. 15, 16, 18, 21, 46, 75), and Strabo (xi. pp. 509, 518, xiv. p. 672, xv. pp. 691—693, 695, 701,706, 707, 714, 730, xvi. pp. 741, 766, xvii. p. 824.) The anecdote which Lucian relates (Quomodo Idst. conscrib. c. 12) about Aristobulus is supposed by modern writers to refer to Onesicritus.

2. Plutarch refers to a work upon stones, and another upon the affairs of Italy, written by an Aristobulus, but whether he is the same person as the preceding, is uncertain. (Plut. de Fluv. c. 14. Par all. Min. c. 32.)

3. An Alexandrine Jew, and a Peripatetic phi­losopher, who is supposed to have lived under Ptolemy Philometor (began to reign b. c. 180), and to have been the same as the teacher of Ptolemy Evergetes. (2 Maccab. i. 10.) He is said to have been the author of commentaries upon the books of Moses ^E^rjy^(reLS ttjs Mwi/fTews yga-<£>rjs)? addressed to Ptolemy Philometor, which are referred to by Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. i. pp. 305, b. 342, b. v. p. 595, c. d), Eusebius (Praep. Ev. vii. 13, viii. 9, ix. 6, xiii. 12), and other ecclesiastical writers. The object of this work was to prove that the Peripatetic philosophy, and in fact almost all the Greek philosophy, was taken from the books of Moses. It is now, how­ever, admitted that this work was not written by the Aristobulus whose name it bears, but by some later and unknown writer, whose object was to induce the Greeks to pay respect to the Jewish literature. (Valckenaer, Diatribe de Aristobulo^ Judaeo, &c. edita post auctoris mortem ab J. Luza~ C20, Lugd. Bat. 1806.)

4. A brother of Epicurus, and a follower of his philosophy. (Diog. Lae'rt. x. 3, Plut. Non posse suaviter mm sec. Epic. p. 1103, a,)

ARISTOBULUS £&purr6€ov\os\ princes of Judaea. 1. The eldest son of Johannes Hyrcanus. In b. c. 110 we find him, together with his second brother Antigonus, successfully prosecuting for his father the siege of Samaria, which was destroyed in the following year. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 10. §§ 2, 3; Bell. Jud. i. 2. § 7.) Hyrcanus dying in 107, Aristobulus took the title of king, this being the first instance of the assumption of that name among the Jews since the Babylonish captivity (but comp. Strab. xvi. p. 762), and secured his power by the imprisonment of all his brothers except his favourite Antigonus, and by the murder of his mother, to whom Hyrcanus had left the government by will. The life of Antigonus himself was soon sacrificed to his brother's suspicions through the intrigues of the queen and her party, and the remorse felt by Aristobulus for this deed increased the illness under' which he was suffering at the time, and hastened his death. (b. c. 106.) In his reign the Ituraeans were subdued and compelled to adopt the observance of the Jewish law. He also re­ceived the name of 3>i\kk\i]v from the favour which he shewed to the Greeks. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 11; Bell. Jud. i. 3.)

2. The younger son of Alexander Jannaeus and Alexandra. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 16. § 1; Bell. Jud. 1. 5. § 1.) During the nine years of his mother's reign he set himself against the party of the Phari*

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