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ARISTEIDES.

tlie Greek states in b< c. 425 and 424. (Time, iv. 50, 75.)

4. An Elean, conquered in the armed race at the Olympic, in the Diaulos at the Pythian, and in the boys' horse-race at the Nemean games. (Pans. vi. 16. § 3.)

ARISTEIDES, P. AELIUS ('ApioWo^s), surnamed THEODORUS, one of the most cele­brated Greek rhetoricians of the second century after Christ, was the son of Eudaemon, a priest of Zeus, and born at Adrian! in Mysia, according to some in A. d. 129, and according to others in a. d. 117. He shewed extraordinary talents even in his early youth, and devoted himself with an al­most unparalleled zeal to the study of rhetoric, which appeared to him the worthiest occupation of a man, and along with it he cultivated poetry as an amusement. Besides the rhetorician Herodes Atticus, whom he heard at Athens, he also received instructions from Aristocles at Pergamus, from Polemon at Smyrna, and from the grammarian Alexander of Cottyaeum. (Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 9; Suidas, s. v. 'Apiffreidys • Aristeid. Oral. fun. in Aleoc. p. 80, ed. Jebb.) After being sufficiently prepared for his profession, he travelled for some time, and visited various places in Asia, Africa, especially Egypt, Greece, and Italy. The fame of his talents and acquirements, which preceded him everywhere, was so great, that monuments were erected to his honour in several towns which he had honoured with his presence. (Aristeid. Orat. Aegypk. ii. p. 331, &c.; Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 9. § 1.) Shortly before his return, and while yet in Italy, he was attacked by an illness which lasted for thirteen years. He had from his childhood been of a very weakly constitution, but neither this nor his protracted illness prevented his prosecuting his studies, for he was well at intervals; and in his "Sermones Sacri" (iepol Aoyot, a sort of diary of his illness and his recovery), he relates that he was frequently encouraged by visions in his dreams to cultivate rhetoric to the exclusion of all other studies. During this period and afterwards, he resided at Smyrna, whither he had gone on ac­count of its baths, but he made occasional excur­sions into the country, to Pergamus, Phocaea, and other towns. (Serin. Sacr. ii. p. 304, iv. p. 324, &c.) He had great influence with the emperor M. Aurelius, whose acquaintance he had formed in Ionia, and when in a. d. 178, Smyrna was to a great extent destroyed by an earthquake, Aris-toides represented the deplorable condition of the city and its inhabitants in such vivid colours to the emperor that he was moved to tears, and gene­rously assisted the Smyrnaeans in rebuilding their town. The Smyrnaeans shewed their gratitude to Aristeides by erecting to him a brazen statue in their agora, and by calling him the founder of their town. (Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 9. § 2; Aristeid. Epist. ad M. Aurel. et Commod. i. p. 512.) Va­rious other honours and distinctions were offered to him at Smyrna, but he refused them, and accept­ed only the office of priest of Asclepius, which he held until his death, about A. D. 180, according to some, at the age of GO, and according to others of 70. The circumstance of his living for so many years at Smyrna, and enjoying such great honours there, is probably the reason that in an epigram still extant (Anthol. Planud. p. 376) he is regard­ed as a native of Smyrna. The memory of Aris­teides was honoured in several ancient towns by

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ARISTEIDES.

statues. (Liban. Epist. 1551.) One of these re­presenting the rhetorician in a sitting attitude, was discovered in the 16th century, and is at present in the Vatican museum. The museum of Verona contains an inscription to his honour. (Visconti, Iconograph. Grecq. i. plate xxxi. p. 373, &c.; Bar-toli, Dissert. Sul. Museo Veronese., Verona, 1745, 4to.)

The works of Aristeides extant are, fifty-five orations and declamations (including those which were discovered by Morelli and Mai), and two treatises on rhetorical subjects of little value, viz. irepl tto/\itikov \6yov Kal Trepl dtyeAovs Aoyov. Some of his orations are eulogies on the power of certain divinities, others are panegyrics on towns, such as Smyrna, Cizycus, Rome ; one among them is a Panathenaicus, and an imitation of that of Isocrates. Others again treat on subjects con­nected with rhetoric and eloquence. The six orations called lepol Aoyo/, which were mentioned above, have attracted considerable attention in modern times, on account of the various stories they contain respecting the cures of the sick in temples, and on account of the apparent resem­blance between these cures and those said to be effected by Mesmerism. (Thorlacius, Opuscul. ii. p. 129, &c.) A list of the orations extant as well as of the lost works of Aristeides, is given in Fabricius (Bibl. Gr. vL p. 15, &c.), and more completely by Westermann. (Gesch. der Gri&cli. Beredtsaiiik, p. 321, &c,) Aristeides as an orator is much superior to the majority of rhetoricians in his time, whose great and only ambition was to shine and make a momentary impression by ex­tempore speeches, and a brilliant and dazzling style. Aristeides, with whom thought was of far greater importance than the form in which it ap­peared, expressed the difference between himself and the other rhetoricians, at his first interview with the emperor, M. Aurelius, by saying, ovk eV/xev t&v e^uoiWct)*', aAAd t&v dicpL§ovvr&>i/. (Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 9. § 2; Sopat. Proleg. in Aristid. p. 738, ed. Dind.) He despised the silly puns, the shallow witticisms and insignificant or­naments of his contemporaries, and sought nourish­ment for his mind in the study of the ancients. In his panegyric orations, however, he often en­deavours to display as much brilliancy of style as he can. On the whole his style is brief and con­cise, but too frequently deficient in ease and clear­ness. His sentiments are often trivial and spun out to an intolerable length, which leaves the reader nothing to think upon for himself. His orations remind us of a man who is fond of hear­ing himself talk. Notwithstanding these defects, however, Aristeides is still unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries. His admirers compared him to Demosthenes, and even Aristeides did not think himself much inferior. This vanity and self-sufficiency made him enemies and opponents, among whom are mentioned Palladius (Liban. Epist. 546), Sergius, and Porphyrius. (Suid. s. vv.} But the number of his admirers was far greater, and several learned grammarians wrote commen­taries on his orations. Besides Athanasius, Me-nander, and others? whose works are lost, we must mention especially Sopater of Apamea, who is pro­bably the author of the Greek Prolegomena to the orations of Aristeides, and also of some among the Scholia on Aristeides, which have been published by Trommel (SchoUa in Ari^iidis Orationes^ Frankf,

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