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ARISTARCHUS.

sia, b. c. 500, Aristagoras was taken by stratagem and delivered up to his fellow-citizens, who, how­ever, dismissed him uninjured. (Herod, iv. 138, v. 37, 38.)

2. Tyrant of Cyzicus, one of the Ionian chiefs left by Dareius to guard the bridge over the Danube. (Herod, iv. 138.)

ARISTAGORAS (<>Apio'ra.y6pa.s\ a Greek writer on Egypt. (Steph. Byz. s. vv. l

Aelian, H. A. xi. 10.) Stephanus Byz. (s. v. FvvaiKOTroXis) says, that Aristagoras was not much younger than Plato, and from the order in which he is mentioned by Pliny (H. N. xxxvi. 12. s. 17) in the list of authors, who wrote upon Pyra­mids, he would appear to have lived between, or been a contemporary of, Duris of Samos and Arte-miodorus of Ephesus.

ARISTAGORAS, comic poet. [metagenes.]

ARISTANAX (ApKfrdvafy a Greek physi­ cian, of whose life nothing is known, and of whose date it can be positively determined only that, as he is mentioned by Soranus (De Arte Obstetr. p. 201), he must have lived some time in or before the second century after Christ. [W. A. G.]

ARISTANDER ('ApftrrctvSpos), the most cele­brated soothsayer of Alexander the Great. He survived the king. (Arrian, Anal. iii. 2, iv. 4, &c.; Curt. iv. 2, 6, 13, 15, vii. 7; Pint. Alex. 25; Aelian, V. H. xii. 64; Artemid. i. 31, iv. 24.) The work of Aristander on prodigies, which is referred to by Pliny (H. N. xvii. 25. s. 38 ; Elenchus, lib. viii. x. xiv. xv. xviii.) and Lucian (Philopat. c. 21), was probably written by the soothsayer of Alexander.

ARISTANDER, of Paros, was the sculptor of one of the tripods which the Lacedaemonians made out of the spoils of the battle of Aegospotami (b. c. 405), and dedicated at Arnyclae. The two tripods had statues beneath them, between the feet : that of Aristander had Sparta holding a lyre; that of Polycleitus had a figure of Aphrodite. (Paus. iii. 18. § 5.) [P. S.]

ARISTARCHUS ('Apforapxos). 1. Is named with Peisancler, Phrynichus, and Antiphon, as a principal leader of the "Four Hundred "(B- c. 411) at Athens, and is specified as one of the strongest anti-democratic partisans. (Thuc. viii. 90.) On the first breaking out of the counter-revolution we find him leaving the council-room with Theramenes, and acting at Peiraeeus at the head of the young-oligarchical cavalry (ib. 92) ; and on the downfall of his party, he took advantage of his office as strategus, and rode off with a party of the most barbarous of the foreign archers to the border fort of Oenoe, then besieged by the Boeotians and Corinthians. In concert with them, and under cover of his command, he deluded the garrison, by a statement of terms concluded with Sparta, into surrender, and thus gained the place for the enemy. (Ib. 98.) He afterwards, it appears, came into the hands of the Athenians, and was with Alexicles brought to trial and punished with death, not later than 406. (Xen. Hell. i. 7. § 28 ; Lycurg. c. Leocr. p. 164; Thirlwall, iv. pp. 67 and 73.) [A. H. C.]

2. There was an Athenian of the name of Aristarchus (apparently a different person from the oligarchical leader of that name), a conversation between whom and Socrates is recorded by Xeno-phon. (Mem. ii. 7.)

3. A Lacedaemonian, who in b. c. 400 was

ARISTARCHUS,

sent out to succeed Cleander as harmost of Byzan­tium. The Greeks who had accompanied Cyrus in his expedition against his brother Artaxerxes, had recently returned, and the main body of them had encamped near Byzantium. Several of them, however, had sold their arms and taken up their residence in the city itself. Aristarchus, following the instructions he had received from Anaxibius, the Spartan admiral, whom he had met at Cyzicus, sold all these, amounting to about 400, as slaves. Having been bribed by Pharnabazus, he prevented the troops from recrossing into Asia and ravaging that satrap's province, and in various ways annoyed and ill-treated them. (Xen. Anab. vii. 2. §§ 4—7? vii. 3. §§ 1—3, vii. 6. §§ 13,24.)

4. One of the ambassadors sent by the Phocaeans to Seleucus, the son of Antiochus the Great, b. c. 190. (Polyb. xxi. 4.)

5. A prince or ruler of the Colchians, appointed by Pompey after the close of the Mithridatic war. (Appian, de Bell Miili. c. 114.) [C. P. M.]

ARISTARCHUS ('ApiWpxos), of alexan­dria, the author of a work on the interpretation of dreams. ('Oj/etpotfprra, Artemid. iv. 23.)

ARISTARCHUS ('Apf<rrapx<w)9 the chro-nographer, the author of a letter on the situa­tion of Athens, and the events which took place there in the time of the Apostles, and especially of the life of Dionysius, the Areiopagite. (Hildui-nus, JEp. ad Ludovicum, quoted by Vossius, Hist, Graec. p. 400, &c. ed. Westermann.)

ARISTARCHUS ('Apio-Tapxos), the most celebrated grammarian and critic in all antiquity, was a native of Samothrace. He was educated at Alexandria, in the school of Aristophanes of By­zantium, and afterwards founded himself a gram­matical and critical school, which flourished for a long time at Alexandria, and subsequently at Rome also. Ptolemy Philopator entrusted to Aristarchus the education of his son, Ptolemy Epiphanes, and Ptolemy Physcon too was one of his pupils. (Athen. ii. p. 71.) Owing, however, to the bad treatment which the scholars and philosophers of Alexandria experienced in the reign of Physcon, Aristarchus, then at an advanced age, left Egypt and went to Cyprus, where he is said to have died at the age of seventy-two, of voluntary starvation, because he was suffering from incurable dropsy. He left behind him two sons, Aristagoras and Aristarchus, who are likewise called grammarians, but neither of them appears to have inherited any­thing of the spirit or talents of the father.

The numerous followers and disciples of Aris­tarchus were designated by the names of ol 'Apiffrdpx^i-Oi or of cur' 'Apiffrdpxov. Aristarchus, his master Aristophanes, and his opponent Crates of Mallus, the head of the grammatical school at Pergamus, were the most eminent grammarians of that period; but Aristarchus surpassed them all in knowledge and critical skill. His whole life was devoted to grammatical and critical pursuits, with the view to explain and constitute correct texts of the ancient poets of Greece, such as Homer, Pindar, Archilochus, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes, Ion, and others. His grammatical studies embraced everything, which the term in its widest sense then comprised, and he together with his great contem­poraries are regarded as the first who established fixed principles of grammar, though Aristarchus himself is often called the prince of grammarians 6 Kopvtycuos t<£z> ypafauariKccv., or 6

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