Scanned text contains errors.
and had the surname of iepos. (Lucian,P7«7ojt>se«t?. c. 29, &c.)
ARIMAZES ('Apipdfrs) or ARIOMA'ZES ('ApfOyua^Tjs), a chief who had possession, in b. c. 328, of a very strong fortress in Sogdiana, usually called the Rock, which Droysen identifies with a place called Kohiten, situate near the pass of Kolugha or Derbend. Arimazes at first refused to surrender the place to Alexander, but afterwards yielded when some of the Macedonians had climbed to the summit. In this fortress Alexander found Roxana, the daughter of the Bactrian chief, Oxy-artes, whom he made his wife. Curtius (vii. 11) relates, that Alexander crucified Arimazes and the leading men who were taken ; but this is not mentioned by Arrian (iv. 19) or Polyaenus (iv. 3. § 29), and is improbable. (Comp. Strab. xi. p. 517.)
ARIMNESTUS ('Apf/uvwror), the commander of the Plataeans at the battles of Marathon and Plataea. (Pans. ix. 4. § 1 ; Herod, ix. 72; Plut. Arist. c. 11.) The Spartan who killed Mar-donius is called by Plutarch Arimnestus, but by Herodotus Aeimestus. [aeimnestus,]
ARIOBARZANES ('Apwgopfe^s). 1. The name of three kings or satraps of Pontus.
I. Was betrayed by his son Mithridates to the Persian king. (Xen. Cyr. viii. 8. § 4; Aristot. Polit. v. 8. § 15, ed. Schneid.) It is doubtful whether this Ariobarzanes is the same who conducted the Athenian ambassadors, in b. c. 405, to the sea-coast of Mysia, after they had been detained three years by order of Cyrus (Xen. Hell. i. 4. § 7), or the same who assisted Antalcidas in b.c. 388. (Id. v. 1. § 28.)
II. Succeeded his father, Mithridates I., and reigned 26 years, b. c. 363—337. (Died. xvi. 90.) He appears to have held some high office in the Persian court five years before the death of his father, as we find him, apparently on behalf of the king, sending an embassy to Greece in b. c. 368. (Xen. Hell. vii. 1. § 27.) Ariobarzanes, who is called by Diodorus (xv. 90) satrap of Phrygia, and by Nepos (Datam. c. 2) satrap of Lydia, Ionia, and Phrygia, revolted from Artaxerxes in b. c. 362, and may be regarded as the founder of the independent kingdom of Pontus. Demosthenes, in b. c. 352, speaks of Ariobarzanes and his three sons having been lately made Athenian citizens. (In Aristocrat, pp. 666, 687.) He mentions him again (pro ffliod. p. 193) in the following year, b. c. 351, and says, that the Athenians had sent Timotheus to his assistance; but that when the Athenian general saw that Ariobarzanes was in open revolt against the king, he refused to assist him.
III. The son of Mithridates III., began to reign B. c. 266 and died about b. c. 240. He obtained possession of the city of Amastris, which was surrendered to him. (Memnon, cc. 16, 24, ed. Orelli.) Ariobarzanes and his father, Mithridates, sought the assistance of the Gauls, who had come into Asia twelve years before the death of Mithridates, to expel the Egyptians sent by Ptolemy. (Apollon. ap. Stepli. Byz. s. v. 1/A7Kupa.) Ariobarzanes was succeeded by Mithridates IV.
2. The satrap of Persis, fled after the battle of Guagamela, b. c. 331. to secure the Persian Gates, a pass which Alexander had to cross in his march to Persepolis. Alexander was at first unable to force the pass ; but some prisoners, or, according to other accounts, a Lycian, having acquainted him with a
way over the mountains, he was enabled to gain the heights above the Persian camp. The Persians then took to flight, and Ariobarzanes escaped with a few horsemen to the mountains. (Arrian, iii. 18 ; Diod. xvii. 68; Curt. v. 3, 4.)
3. The name of three kings of Cappadocia. Clinton (F. H. iii. p. 436) makes only two of this name, but inscriptions and coins seem to prove that there were three.
I. Surnamed Pliiloromaeus (^Aopco/Kuos) on coins (b. c. 93—63), was elected king by the Cappadocians, under the direction of the Romans, about b.c. 93. (Justin, xxxviii. 2; Strab. xii. p. 540; Appian, Mithr. 10.) He was several times expelled from his kingdom by Mithridates, and as often restored by the Romans. He seems to have been driven out of his kingdom immediately after his accession, as we find that he was restored by Sulla in b. c. 92. (Pint. Sulla,, 5 ; Liv. Epit. 70; Appian, Mithr. 57.) He was a second time expelled about b. c. 90, and fled to Rome. He was then restored by M.' Aquillius, about b. c. 89 (Appian, Mithr. 10, 11 ; Justin, xxxviii. 3), but was expelled a third time in b.c. 88. In this year war was declared between the Romans and Mithridates ; and Ariobarzanes was deprived of his kingdom till the peace in b. c. 84, when he again obtained it from Sulla, and was established in it by Curio. (Plut. Sulla^ 22, 24 ; Dion Cass. Fragm. 173, ed. Reim.; Appian, Mitlir. 60.) Ariobarzanes appears to have retained possession of Cap-padocia, though frequently harassed by Mithridates,
till b. c. 66, when Mithridates seized it after the departure of Lucullus and before the arrival of Pompey. (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 2, 5.) He was, however, restored by Pompey, who also increased his dominions. Soon after this, probably about b. c. 63, he resigned the kingdom to his son. (Appian, Mithr. 105, 114, B. C. i. 103 ; Val.Max. v. 7. § 2.) We learn from a Greek inscription quoted by Eckhel (iii. p. 199), that the name of liis wife was Athenais, and that their son was Philopator. The inscription on the coin from which the annexed drawing was made, is indistinct and partly effaced : it should be BASIAEfl^ APIOBAPZANOT OlAOPHMAIOT. Pallas is represented holding a small statue of Victory in her right hand.
II. Surnamed Philopator (3>i\OTrdrc»)p^ according to coins, succeeded his father b. c. 63. The time of his death is not known; but it must have been previous to b.c. 51, in which year his son was reigning. He appears to have been assassinated, as Cicero (ad Fam. xv. 2) reminds the son of the fate of his father. Cicero also mentions this Ariobarzanes in one of his orations. (De Prov. Cons. 4.) It appears, from an inscription, that his wife, as well as his father's, was named Athenais.
III. Surnamed Eusebes and Pliiloromaeus (Erf-areSris iced 4>iAopc«fytc«os), according to Cicero (ad Fam. xv. 2) and coins, succeeded his father not long before b.c. 51. (Cic. I.e.) While Cicero was in Cilicia, he protected Ariobarzanes from a con-