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ARIARATHES.

ARIANUS '('A.piav6s)9 a friend of Bolls, was employed by him to betray Achaeus to Antiochus the Great, b. c. 214. (Polyb. viii. 18, &e.) [See p. 8, a.]

ARIAPEITHES ('Ap(a7rei'0r?s), a king of the Scythians, the father of Scyles, was treacherously killed by Spargapeithes, the king of the Agathyrsi. Ariapeithes was a contemporary of Herodotus, for lie tells us that he had from Tinmes, the guardian of Ariapeithes, an account of the family of Ana-charsis. (Herod, iv. 76, 78.)

ARIARATHES ('Apiap(£0r,s.) There are a great many Persian names beginning with Aria—, Ario—, and Art—, which all contain the root Ar, which is seen in ^ApTcuoi, the ancient national name of the Persians (Herod, vii. 61), arid "Aptot or^ApeiOi, likewise an ancient designation of the inhabitants of the table land of Persia. (Herod, iii. 93, vii. 62.) Dr. Rosen, to whom we are in­debted for these remarks, (in Quarterly Journal of Education^ vol. ix. p. 336,) also observes that the name Arii is the same with the Sanscrit word Arya, by which in the writings of the Hindus the followers of the Brahmanical law are designated. He shews thatvi/;?/« signifies in Sanscrit " honour­able, entitled to respect," and Arta, in all pro­bability, " honoured, respected." In Aria-rathes, the latter part of the word apparently is the same as the Zend ratu, " great, master " (Bopp, Verglei-chende Grammaiik, p. 196), and the name would therefore signify "an honourable master." (Comp. Pott, Elymoloyischs Forsclmngen, p. xxxvi., &c.)

Ariavathes was the name of several kings of Cappadocia, who traced their origin to Anaphas, one of the seven. Persian chiefs who slew the Magi. [anaphas.J

I. The son of Ariamnes I., was distinguish­ed for his love of his brother Holophernes, whom he sent to assist Ochus in the recovery of Egypt, B. c. 350. After the death of Alexander, Perdiccas appointed Eumenes governor of Cappadocia; but upon Ariarathes refusing to submit to Eumenes, Perdiccas made war upon him. Ariarathes was defeated, taken prisoner, and crucified, together with many of his relations, b. c. 322. Eumenes then obtained possession of Cappadocia. Ariarathes was 82 years of age at the time of his death : he had adopted as his son, Ariarathes, the eldest son of his brother Holophernes. (Diod. xxxi. Ed. 3, where it is stated that he fell in battle ; Diod. xviii. 16 ; Arrian, ap. Phot. Cod. 92, p. 69, b. 26. ed. Bekker ; Appian, Mitltr. 8 ; Lucian, Macrob. 13 ; Plut. Eumen. 3 ; Justin, xiii. 6, whose ac­count is quite erroneous.)

II. Son of Holophernes, fled into Armenia after the death of Ariarathes I. After the death of Eumenes, b. c. 315, he recovered Cappadocia with the assistance of Ardoates, the Armenian king, and killed Amyntas, the Macedonian go­vernor. He was succeeded by Ariamnes II., the. eldest of his three sons'. (Diod. xxxi. Ed. 3.)

III. Son of Ariamnes II., and grandson of the preceding, married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II., king of Syria, and obtained a share in the government during the life-time of his father. (Diod. I. c.)

IV. Son of the preceding, was a child at his accession, and reigned b. c. 220—163, about 57 years. (Diod. 1. c. ; Justin. xxix. 1; Polyb. iv. 2.) He married Antiochis, the daughter of Antiochus III., king of Syria, and, in consequence of this

ARIARATHES.

alliance, assisted Antiochus in his war against the Romans. After the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans, b. c. 190, Ariarathes sued for peace in 188, which he obtained on favourable terms, as his daughter was about that time betrothed to Eumenes, the ally of the Romans. In B. c. 183— 179, he assisted Eumenes in his war against Phar-naces. Polybius mentions that a Roman embassy was sent to Ariarathes after the death of Antiochus IV., who died b. c. 164. Antiochis, the wife of Ariaratlles, at first bore him no children, and ac­cordingly introduced two supposititious ones, who were called Ariarathes and Holophernes. Subse­quently, ho waver, she bore her husband two daughters and a son, Mithridates, afterwards Ariaratlles V., and then informed Ariarathes of the deceit she had practised upon him. The other two were in consequence sent away from Cap­padocia, one to Rome, the other to Ionia. (Liv. xxxvii. 31, xxxviii. 38, 39 ; Polyb. xxii. 24, xxv. 2, 4, xxvi. 6, xxxi. 12, 13 ; Appian, Syr. 5, 32, 42 ; Diod. I. c.}

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V. Son of the preceding, previously called Mi­thridates, reigned 33 years, b. c. 163—130. He was surnamed Philopator, and was distin­guished by the excellence of his character and his cultivation of philosophy and the liberal arts. According to Livy (xlii. 19), he was educated at Rome ; but this account may perhaps refer to the other Ariarathes, one of the supposititious sons of the late king. In consequence of rejecting, at the wish of the Romans, a marriage with the sister of Demetrius Soter, the latter made war upon him, and brought forward Holophernes, one of the sup­posititious sons of the late king, as a claimant of the throne. Ariarathes was deprived of his kingdom, and fled to Rome about b. c. 158. He was re­stored by the Romans, who, however, appear to have allowed Holophernes to reign jointly with him, as is expressly stated by Appian (Syr. 47), and implied by Polybius (xxxii. 20). The. joint government, however, did not last long ; for we find Ariarathes shortly afterwards named as sole king. In b. c. 154, Ariarathes assisted Attains in his war against Prusias, and sent his son Demetrius in command of his forces. He fell in b. c. 130, in the war of the Romans against Aristonicus of Per-gamus. In return for the succours which he had brought the Romans on that occasion, Lycaonia and Cilicia were added to the dominions of his family. By his wife Laodice he had six children ; but they were all, with the exception of the youngest, killed by their mother, that she might obtain the government of the kingdom. After she

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