The Ancient Library

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On this page: Aretus – Areus – Areus I – Argaeus – Argalus – Arganthone – Arganthonius – Argas – Argeia – Argeiphontes – Argeius


Sicilian nymphs, and as the divinity who inspired pastoral poetry. The Syracusans represented on many of their coins the head of Arethusa sur­rounded by dolphins. (Rasche, Lex. Numism. i. 1, p. 107.) One of the Hesperides likewise bore the name of Arethusa. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 11.) [L. S.]

M. ARETHU'SIUS ('Ape0orf<nos), the author of a confession of faith, promulgated in the third council of Sirmium, a. d. 359, and was subse­quently a martyr under Julian. (Socrat. H. E. ii. 30, with Valesius' note ; Nazian. Orat. 48 ; Tille-mont, vii. p. 726.)

ARETUS ("a/jtjtos). Two mythical personages of this name are mentioned in Homer. (//. xvii. 494, 517, and Od. iii. 413.) [L. S.]

AREUS I. ('Apefo), succeeded his grandfather, Cleomenes II., as king of Sparta, of the Eurys-thenid family, b. c. 309, his father, acrotatus, having died before him. He reigned 44 years. (Diod. xx. 29.)

In the year 280 b. c., a league of the Greek states was formed, at the instigation of Sparta, acting under the influence of its ally, Ptolemy Ceraunus, to free themselves from the dominion of Antigonus Gonatas. The first blow was struck by Areus, who, having obtained a decree of the Amphyctions against the Aetolians, be­cause they had cultivated the sacred land of Cirrha, attacked Cirrha unexpectedly, and plun­dered and burnt the town. His proceedings were viewed by the Aetolian shepherds on the mountains, who formed themselves into a body of about 500 men, and attacked the scattered troops of Areus. These, ignorant of the number of their enemies, were struck with a panic and fled, leaving 9000 of their number dead. Thus the expedition turned out fruitless, and the attempts of Sparta to renew the war met with no encouragement from the other states, which suspected that the real design of Sparta was not to liberate Greece, but to obtain the supremacy for herself. (Justin, xxiv. 1 : it is scarcely credible that the numbers can be right.)

When Sparta was attacked by Pyrrhus, in b. c. 272 [acrotatus], Areus was absent on an ex­pedition in Crete. He returned straight to Sparta, and formed an alliance with the Argives, the effect of which was, that Pyrrhus drew off his forces from Sparta to attack Argos. (Paus. iii. 6. § 2 ; Pint. Pyrrli. 26—29.) In the year 267, Areus united with Ptolemy Philadelphus in an unsuc­cessful attempt to save Athens from Antigonus Gonatas. (Paus. iii. 6. § 3 ; Justin, xxvi. 2.) He fell in a battle against the Macedonians at Corinth, in the next year but one, 265 b. c., and was suc­ceeded by his- son Acrotatus. (Plut. Agis, 3 ; Justin, xxvi.? Prol.) He was the king of Sparta to whom the Jews sent the embassy mentioned in 1 Mace. xii. 20.

2. Areus II., a posthumous son of Acrotatus, was born as king probably in 264 A. d., and died at the age of eight years. He was succeeded by his great uncle, Leonidas II. (Plut. Agis, 3 ; Paus. iii. 6. § 3.) [P. S.]

AREUS ('Apeifs), a Spartan exile, who was re­stored to his country with Alcibiades, another exile [see p. 100, a.], about b. c. 184, by the Achaeans, but afterwards went as ambassador to Rome to accuse the Achaeans. (Polyb. xxiii. 11, 12, xxiv. 4 ; Liv. xxxix. 35 ; Paus. vii. 9. § 2.)

ARGAEUS ('ApyaTos), king of Macedonia was the son and successor of Perdiccas I., who



according to Herodotus and Thucydides, was the founder of the dynasty. Thirty-four years are given as the length of his reign by Dexippus (ap. Syncell. p. 494, Dind.), but apparently without any authority. (Herod, viii. 139; Justin, vii. 2.)

There was a pretender to the Macedonian crown of this name, who, with the assistance of the Illy- rians, expelled Amyntas II. from his dominions (b. c. 393), and kept possession of the throne for two years. Amyntas then, with the aid of the Thessa- lians, succeeded in expelling Argaeus and recover­ ing at least a part of his dominions. It is probably the same Argaeus who in b. c. 359 again appears as a pretender to the throne. He had induced the Athenians to support Ins pretensions, but Philip, who had just succeeded to the regency of the king­ dom, by his intrigues and promises induced them to remain inactive. Argaeus upon this collected a body of mercenaries, and being accompanied by some Macedonian exiles and some Athenian troops, who were permitted by their general, Manlias, to join him, he made an attempt upon Aegae, but was repulsed. On his retreat to Methone, he was intercepted by Philip, and defeated. What be­ came of him we are not informed. (Diod. xiv. 92, xvi. 2, 3; Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 660 ; Thirlwall, vol. v. pp. 161, 173.) [C. P. M.]

ARGALUS ("Ap7aAos), the eldest son of Amyclas, and his successor in the throne of Sparta. (Paus. iii. 1. § 3.)

ARGANTHONE ('ApyaMvy), a fair maiden in Mysia, who used to hunt alone in the forests. Rhesus, attracted by the fame of her beauty, came to her during the chase; he succeeded in winning her love, and married her. After he was slain at Troy by Diomedes, she died of grief. (Parthen. Erot. 36 ; Steph. Byz. s.v. 'ApyavBwvis.) [L. S,]

ARGANTHONIUS ('ApyavQdvios ), king of Tartessus in Spain, in the sixth century b. c., received in the most friendly manner the Pho-caeans who sailed to his city, and gave them money in order that they might fortify their city. He is said to have reigned 80 years, and to have lived 120. (Herod, i. 163 ; Strab. iii. p. 151 ; Lucian, Macrob. 10 ; Cic. de Senect. 19 ; Plin. H. N. vii. 48 ; Val. Max. viii. 13, ext. 4.)

ARGAS ('Ap7«s), who is described as vo^mv TTovripw ital dpyaXewv 7roi7]T7?s. (Plut. Dem. 4 ; Athen. xiv. p. 638, c. d., comp. iv. p. 131, b.)

ARGEIA ('Apyela). 1. A surname of Hera derived from Argos, the principal seat of her wor­ship. (Paus. iii. 13. § 6.)

2. Argeia also occurs as the name of several mythical personages, as—a. The wife of Inachus and mother of lo. (Hygin. Fab. 145; comp. Apol­ lod. ii. ]. § 3.) b. The wife of Polybus and mo­ ther of Argus, the builder of the ship Argo. (Hy­ gin. Fab. 14.) c. A daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea, and wife of Polyneices. (Apollod. i. 9. § 13, iii. 6. § 1; Hygin. Fab. 72.) d. A daughter of Autesion and wife of Aristodemus, the Heraclid, by whom she became the mother of Eurysthenes and Procles. (Herod, vi. 52; Paus. iv. 3. § 3; Apollod. ii. 7. § 2.) [L. S.]

ARGEIPHONTES ('Apyeup6vrns), a surname of Hermes, by which he is designated as the mur­ derer of Argus Panoptes. (Horn. //. ii. 103, and numerous other passages in the Greek and Latin poets.) [L. S.]

ARGEIUS ('Ap7€tos), was one of the Elean deputies sent to Persia to co-operate with Pelopidas

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