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On this page: Arestor – Aretades – Aretaeus – Aretaphila – Aretas


(Eel i. p. 847, ed. Heeren) ; but others suppose it to have been written by Aesara. [aesara.]

ARESTOR ('ApeWwp), the father of Argus Panoptes, the guardian of lo, who is therefore called Arestorides. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 3 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 112; Ov. Met. i. 624.) According to Pausanias (ii. 16. § 3), Arestor was the husband of Mycene, the daughter of Inachus, from whom the town of Mycenae derived its name. [L. S.]

ARETADES ('ApijraSrjs), of Cnidus, of uncer­tain date, wrote a work on Macedonian affairs (Ma/ceSoz/f/cd) in three books at least, and another on the history of islands (vTjtn&irn/ca) in two books at least. (Pint. ParalL 11, 27.) It is uncertain whether the Aretades referred to by Porphyry (ap. Euseb. Praep. JEv. x. 3), as the author of a work Ueol awe/^rrciJcrews, is the same as the above

or not.

ARETAEUS ('Apercuos), one of the most cele­brated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, no particulars are known. There is some uncertainty respecting both his age and coun­try ; but it seems probable that he practised in the first century after Christ, in the reign of Nero or Vespasian, and he is generally styled °4 the Cappado-cian" (Ka7T7ra8o£). He wrote in Ionic Greek a general treatise on diseases, which is still extant, and is certainly one of the most valuable reliques of antiquity, displaying great accuracy in the detail of symptoms, and in seising the diagnostic character of diseases. In his practice he followed for the most part the method of Hippocrates, but he paid less attention to what have been styled " the natural actions " of the system ; and, contrary to the practice of the Father of Medicine, he did not hesitate to attempt to counteract them, when they appeared to him to be injurious. The account which he gives of his treatment of various diseases indicates a simple and sagacious system, and one of more energy than that of the professed Methodici. Thus he freely administered active purgatives ; he did not object to narcotics ; he was much less averse to bleeding ; and upon the whole his Mate ria Medica was both ample and efficient. It may be asserted generally that there are few of the ancient physicians, since the time of Hippocrates, who appear to have been less biassed by attachment to any peculiar set of opinions, and whose account of the phenomena and treatment of disease has better stood the test of subsequent experience. Aretaeus is placed by some writers among the Pneumatici [Diet, of Ant. s. v. Pneiimatici)^ because he main­tained the doctrines which are peculiar to this sect ; other systematic writers, however, think hat he is better entitled to be placed with the Eclectics. (Did. of Ant. s. v. Eclectici,}

His work consists of eight book, of which four are

ntitled Ilepl Alri&v K.a.1 ^rt/jLeiow'Q^wv KaiXpovitov

laflaJf, De Causis et Sic/nis Acutorum et Diuturno-

um Morborum • and the other four, Ylepl ©epcwrems

}£ewt' Kal Xpoviwv Tla6wv9 De Curcdione Acutorum

'• Diuturnorum Morborum. They are in a tolerably

*)mplete state of preservation, though a few chap-

;rs are lost. The work was first published in a

atin translation by J. P. Crassus, Venet. 1552,

:o., together with Rufus Ephesius. The first

reek edition is that by J. Goupylus, Paris, 1554,

rro., which is more complete than the Latin ver-

)n of Crassus. In 1 723 a magnificent edition in

lio was published at the Clarendon press at Ox-

:d, edited by J. Wigan, containing an improved

077 tjt i


text, a new Latin version, learned dissertations and notes, and a copious index by Maittaire. In 1731, the celebrated Boerhaave brought out a new edition, of which the text and Latin version had been printed before the appearance of WiganX and are of less value than his ; this edition, how­ever, contains a copious and useful collection of annotations by P. Petit and D. W. Triller. The last and most useful edition is that by C. G. Kiihn, Lips. 1828, 8vo., containing Wigan's text, Latin version, dissertations, &c., together with Petit's Commentary, Triller's Emendations, and Mait­taire's Index. A new edition is preparing for the press at this present time by Dr. Ermerins, of Middelburg in Zealand. (See his preface, p. viii., to Hippocr. De Vict. Rat. in Morb. Acut. Lugd.Bat. 1841.) The work has been translated into French, Italian, and German ; there are also two English translations, one by J. Moffat, Lond. 1785, 8vo., pjid the other by T. F. Reynolds, Lond. 1837, 8vo., neither of which contains the whole work. Further information respecting the medical opinions of Aretaeus may be found in Le Clerc's Hist, de la Med.; Haller's Bibl. Medic. Pract. vol. i. ; Sprengel's Hist, de la Med. ; Fabricius, BibL Gr. vol. iv. p. 70S, ed. Harles ; Isensee, Gesck. der Med. See also Bostock, Hist, of Med., and Choulant's Handbucli der Buclierkimde fur die Aeltere Medicin, from which two works the pre­ceding article has been chiefly taken. [W. A. G.]

ARETAPHILA (5Apera</>(Aa), of Gyrene, lived at the time of the Mithridatic war. Nicocrates, the tyrant of Gyrene, killed her husband, Phaedi-mus, and compelled her to live with him ; but she at length delivered the city from tyranny by pro­curing the murder of Nicocrates, and subsequently of his brother Leander, when he acted in the same tyrannical manner. (Pint, de Mid. virt. p. 255, &c.)

ARETAS ('Aperas), the name of several kings of Arabia Petraea.

1. The contemporary of Jason, the high-priest of the Jews, and of Antiochus Epiphanes, about b. c. 170. (2 Maccab. v. 8.)

2. A contemporary of Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judaea. This Aretas is probably the same who reigned in Coele-Syria after Antiochus XII., sur-named Dionysus. He was invited to the kingdom by those who had possession of Damascus. (Jo­seph. Antiq. xiii. 13. § 3, 15. § 2.) Subsequently he seems to have been compelled to relinquish Syria; and we next hear of his taking part in the contest between Aristobulus and Hyrcanus for the Jewish crown, though whether this Aretas is the same as the one who ruled over Syria may be doubted. At the advice of Antipater, Hyrcanus fled to Aretas, who invaded Judaea in B. c. 65, in order to place him on the throne, and laid siege to Jerusalem. Aristobulus, however, purchased the intervention of Scaurus and Gabinius, Pompey's legates, who compelled Aretas to raise the siege. (Joseph. Ant. xiv. i. § 4, c. 2, Bell. Jud. i. 6. § 2.) [aristobulus, No. 2.] After Pcmpey had re­duced Syria to the form of a Roman province, he turned his arms against Aretas, b. c. 64, Avho sub­mitted to him for a time. This expedition against Aretas preceded the war against Aristobulus in Judaea, which Plutarch erroneously represents as the first. (Dion Cass. xxxvii. 15 ; Appian, Mitlir. 106 ; Plut. Pomp. 39, 41.) The war against Aretas was renewed after Pompey's departure from Asia; and Scaurus, Pompey's legate, who

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