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ARDICES of Corinth and TELE'PH ANES of Sicyon, were, according to Pliny (xxxv. 5), the first artists who practised the monogram, or draw ing in outline with an indication also of the parts within the external outline, but without colour, as in the designs of Flaxman and Retzsch. Pliny, after stating that the invention of the earliest form of drawing, namely, the external outline, as marked by the edge of the shadow (umbra Jiominis lineis circumducta, or pictura linearis), was claimed by t3ie Egyptians, the Corinthians, and the Sicyonians, adds, that it was said to have been invented by Philocles, an Egyptian, or by Cleanthes, a Corin thian, and that the next step was made by Ardices and Telephanes, who first added the inner lines of the figure (spargentes tineas intus). [P. S.]
ARDYS ("ApSus). 1. King of Lydia, succeeded his father Gyges, and reigned from b.c. 680 to 631. He took Priene and made war against Miletus. During his reign the Cimmerians, who had been diiven out of their abodes by the Nomad Scythians, took Sardis, with the exception of the citadel. (Herod, i. 15, 16; Paus. iv. 24. § 1.)
2. An experienced general, commanded the right wing of the army of Antiochus the Great in his battle against Molo, b. c. 220. [See. p. 196, b.] He distinguished himself in the next year in the siege of Seleuceia. (Polyb. v. 53, 60.)
AREGON ('ApTfycoz/), a Corinthian painter, who, in conjunction with Cleanthes, ornamented the temple of Artemis Alpheionia at the mouth of the Alpheius in Elis. He painted Artemis riding on a griffin. (Strab. vii. p. 343.) If Cleanthes be the artist mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 5), Aregon must be placed at the very earliest period of the rise of art in Greece. [cleanthes.] [P. S.]
2. A surname of Athena, under which she was worshipped at Athens. Her statue, together with those of Ares, Aphrodite, and Enyo, stood in the temple of Ares at Athens. (Paus. i, 8. § 4.) Her worship under this name was instituted by Orestes after he had been acquitted by the Areiopagus of the murder of his mother, (i. 28. § 5.) It was Athena Areia who gave her casting vote in cases where the Areiopagites were equally divided. 'Aeschyl. Eum. 753.) From these circumstances, :t has been inferred, that the name Areia ought not ;o be derived from Ares, but from dpa, a prayer, or rom ctpeco or dpecr/cco, to propitiate or atone for.
AREILYCUS ('ap^i'aukos). Two mythical ersonages of this name occur in the Iliad, (xiv. 51, xvi. 308.) [L. S.]
AREITHOUS (ApyWoos), king of Arne in ioeotia, and husband of Philomedusa, is called in le Iliad (vii. 8, &c.) Kopwrirys, because he fought ith no other weapon but a club. He fell by the
hand of the Arcadian Lycurgus, who drove him into a narrow defile, where he could not make use of his club. Erythalion, the friend of Lycurgus, wore the armour of Arei'thous in the Trojan war. (Horn. //. vii. 138, &c.) The tomb of Arei'thous was shewn in Arcadia as late as the time of Pau-sanias. (viii. 11. § 3.) There is another mythical personage of this name in the Iliad (xx.487). [L.S.]
AREIUS ('ApeTos), a surname of Zeus, which may mean either the warlike or the propitiating and atoning god, as Areia in the case of Athena. Under this name, Oenomaus sacrificed to him as often as he entered upon a contest with the suitors of his daughter, whom he put to death as soon as they were conquered. (Paus. v. 14. § 5.) [L. S.]
AREIUS or ARIUS ("Apew), a citizen of Alexandria, a Pythagorean or Stoic philosopher in the time of Augustus, who esteemed him so highly, that after the conquest of Alexandria, he declared that he spared the city chiefly for the sake of Areius. (Plut, Ant. 80, Apopliili. p. 207; Dion Cass. li. 16; Julian. Epist. 51 ; comp. Strab. xiv. p. 670.) Areius as well as his two sons, Diony- sius and Nicanor, are said to have instructed Au gustus in philosophy. (Suet. Aug. 89.) He is frequently mentioned by Themistius, who says that Augustus valued him not less than Agrippa. (Themist. Oral. v. p. 63, d. viii. p. 108, b. x. p. 130, b. xiii. p. 173, c. ed. Petav. 1684.) From Quintilian (ii. 15. § 36, iii. 1. § 16) it appears, that Areius also taught or wrote on rhetoric. (Comp. Senec. consol. ad Marc. 4; Aelian, V. H. xii. 25 ; Suid. s. v. ®ewv.) [L. S.]
AREIUS, LECA'NIUS (Ae/cefc/ios "Apeios), a Greek physician, one of whose medical formulae is quoted by Andromachus (ap. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 13, vol. xiii. p. 840), and who must therefore have lived in or before the first century after Christ. He may perhaps be the same person who is several times quoted by Galen, and who is sometimes called a follower of Ascle- piades, 'Acr/cMjTndSeios (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, v. 3, vol. xii. p. 829 ; ibid. viii. 5, vol. xiii. p. 182*; De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 15, vol. xiii. p. 857), sometimes a native of Tarsus in Cilicia (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos., iii. 1, vol. xii. p. 636 ; ibid. ix. 2, vol. xiii. p. 247), and sometimes mentioned without any distinguishing epithet. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, x. 2, vol. xiii. p. 347; De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 11, 14. vol. xiii. pp. 827, 829, 852.) He may perhaps also be the person who is said by Soranus (Vita Hippocr. init., in Hipp. Opera, vol. iii. p. 850) to have written on the life of Hippocrates, and to whom Dioscorides addresses his work on Materia Medica. (vol. i. p. 1.) Whether all these passages refer to the same individual it is impos sible to say for certain, but the writer is not aware of any chronological or other difficulties in the supposition. [W. A. G.]
ARELLIUS, a painter who was celebrated at Rome a little before the reign of Augustus, but degraded the art by painting goddesses after the likeness of his own mistresses. (Plin. xxxv. 37.) FP. S.I
In this latter passage, instead of we should read ^Aodov '