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On this page: Archias – Archibius – Archidameia – Archidamus I – Archidamus Ii

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ARCHIAS.

Athenians, and who had fled from Athens. He seized Hyperides and others in the sanctuary of Aeacus in Aegina, and transported them to Cleo-ime in Argolis, where they were executed. He also apprehended Demosthenes in the temple of Poseidon in Calaiireia. Archias, \vho was nick­named tyvyaSoQripas, the hunter of the exiles, ended his life in great poverty and disgrace. (Plut. Dem. 28, 29, Vit. X. Oral. p. 849 ; Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 69, "b. 41, ed. Bekker.)

3. The governor of Cyprus under Ptolemy, re­ceived a bribe in order to betray the island to Demetrius, b. c. 155, but being detected he hanged himself. (Polyb. xxxiii. 3.)

4. An Alexandrine grammarian, probably lived about the time of Augustus, as he was the teacher of Epaphroditus. (Suidas, s. v. 'ETratypoSiros ; Villoison, Proleg. ad Apoll, Lex. Horn. p. xx.)

ARCHIAS, A. LICI'NIUS, a Greek poet, born at Antioch in Syria, about b. c. 120. His name is known chiefly from the speech of Cicero * in his defence, which is the only source of inform­ation about him, and must therefore be very ques­tionable evidence of his talent, considering that the verses of Archias had been employed in celebrating the part which that orator played in the conspiracy of Catiline. He was on intimate terms with many of the first families in Rome, particularly with the Licinii, whose name he adopted. His reception during a journey through Asia Minor and Greece (pro Arch. c. 3), and afterwards in Grecian Italy, where Tarentum, Rhegium, Naples, and Locri en­rolled him on their registers, shews that his repu­tation was, at least at that time, considerable. In b. c. ] 02 he came to Rome, still young (though not so young as the expression "praetextatus" (c. 3) literally explained would lead us to suppose ; comp. Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 542), and was received in the most friendly way by Lucullus (ad Att. i. 16. 9), Marius, then consul, Hortensius the father, Metel-lus Pius, Q. Catulus, and Cicero. After a short stay, he accompanied Lucullus to Sicily, and fol­lowed him, in the banishment to which he was sentenced for his management of the slave war in that island, to Heraclea in Lucania, in which town, as being a confederate town and having more pri­vileges than Tarentum, he was enrolled as a citizen. He was in the suite of L. Lucullus,—in Asia under Sulla, again in b. c. 76 in Africa, and again in the third Mithridatic war. As he had sung the Cim-bric war in honour of Marius, so now he wrote a poem on this war, which he had witnessed (c. 9), in honour of Lucullus. We do not hear whether he finished his poem in honour of Cicero's consul­ship (c. 11); in b. c. 61, when he was already old, he had not begun it (ad Att. i. 16); or whether he ever published his intended Caeciliana, in ho­nour of Metellus Pius. He wrote many epigrams : it is still disputed, whether any of those preserved under his name in the Anthologia were really his writings. (Comp. Ilgen, Opuscule^ ii. p. 46 ; Clin­ton, iii. p. 452, note k.) These are all of little merit. In b.c. 61, a charge was brought against him, probably at the instigation of a party opposed to his patrons, of assuming the citizenship ille­gally, and the trial came on before Q. Cicero, who

* Schroeter has attacked the genuineness of this oration (Gratio quae mdgo fertur pro Arcliia, &c., Lips. 1818), which is however as fully established as that of any other of Cicero's speeches.

ARCHIDAMUS.

was praetor this year. (Schol. Bob. p. 354, ed. Orelli.) Cicero pleaded his cause in the speech by which the name of Archias has been preserved. " If he had no legal right, yet the man who stood so high as an author, whose talent had been em­ ployed in celebrating Lucullus, Marius, and him­ self, might well deserve to be a Roman citizen. The register certainly, of Heraclea, in which his name was enrolled, had been destroyed by fire in the Marsian war; but their ambassadors and L. Lucullus bore witness that he was enrolled there. He had settled in Rome many years before he be­ came citizen, had given the usual notice before Q. Metellus Pius, and if his property had never been enrolled in the censor's register, it was be­ cause of his absence with Lucullus—and that was after all no proof of citizenship. He had made wills, had been an heir (comp. Diet, of Ant. s. v. Testamentum, Heres\ and his name was on the civil list. But, after all, his chief claim was his talent, and the cause to which he had applied it." If we may believe Cicero (c. 8) and Qiiintilian (x. 7. § 19), Archias had the gift of making good extempore verses in great numbers, and was re­ markable for the richness of his language and his varied range of thought. [C. T. A.]

ARCHIBIUS ('Apx'^os). 1. An Alexandrine grammarian, the son or father of the grammarian Apollonius [apollonius, No. 5, p. 238], wrote an interpretation of the Epigrams of Callimachus. (Suidas, s. v.)

2. Of Leucas or Alexandria, a grammarian, who taught at Rome in the time of Trajan. (Suid, s. v.)

ARCHIBIUS ('Apxi&os), a Greek surgeon, of whom no particulars are known, but who must have lived in or before the first century after Christ, as he is quoted by Heliodorus (in Cocchi's Graecor. Chirurg. Libri, fyc., Flor. 1754, fol. p. 96) and Galen. (De Antid. ii. 10, vol. xiv. p. 159 ; De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 14, vol. xiii. p. 849.) Pliny mentions (H. N. xviii. 70) a person of the same name who wrote a foolish and superstitious letter to Antiochus, king of Syria; but it is un­certain which king is meant, nor is it known that this Archibius was a physician. [W. A. G.]

ARCHIDAMEIA ('Apx^cia). 1. The priestess of Demeter, who, through love of Aristo-menes, set him at liberty when he had been taken prisoner. (Pans. iv. 17. § 1.)

2. The grandmother of Agis IV., was put to death, together with her grandson, in b, c. 240. (Plut. Agis, 4, 20.)

3. A Spartan woman, who distinguished herself by her heroic spirit when Sparta was nearly taken by Pyrrhus in b. c. 272, and opposed the plan which had been entertained of sending the women to Crete. Plutarch (Pyrrli. 27) calls her 'Apxi-Sctyua, but Polyaenus (viii. 49) 'A/>x^a/-us. The latter writer calls her the daughter of king Cleadas (Cleomenes ?).

ARCHIDAMUS I. ('Apx^os), king of Sparta, 12th of the Eurypontids, son of Anaxi- damus, contemporary with the Tegeatan war, which followed soon after the end of the second Mes- senian, in b, c. 668. (Paus. iii. 7. § 69 comp. 3. § 5.) [A. H. C.]

ARCHIDAMUS II., king of Sparta, 17th oi the Eurypontids, son of Zeuxidamus, succeeded tc the throne on the banishment of his grandfathei Leotychides, b. c. 469. In the 4th or perhaps rather the 5th year of his rcignP his kingdom wa,<

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