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ARCHEMACHUS ('Apx^«xos). There are two mythical personages of this name, concerning whom nothing of interest is known, the one a son of Heracles and the other a son of Priam. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8, iii. 12. § 5.) [L. S.]
ARCHEMACHUS fA/>x4*W«), of Euboea, wrote a work on his native country, which consisted at least of three books. (Strab. x. p. 465 ; Athen. vi. p. 264, a.; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 327, a. ed. Paris, 1629 ; Harpocrat. s. v. KorvXaiov tfpos ; Plut. de Is. et Osir. c. 27.) Whether this Arehelaus was the author of the grammatical work At McTcwtyifai (Schol. ad Apolion. Rliod. iv. 262), is uncertain.
ARCHEMORUS ('Apx&upos), a son of the Nemean king Lycurgus, and Eurydice. His real name was Opheltes, which was said to have been changed into Archemorus, that is, "the Forerunner of death," on the following occasion. When the Seven heroes on their expedition against Thebes stopped at Nemea to take in water, the nurse of the child Opheltes, while shewing the way to the Seven, left the child alone. In the meantime, the child was killed by a dragon, an4 buried by the Seven. But as Amphiaraus saw in this accident an omen boding destruction to him and his com panions, they called the child Archemorus, and instituted the Nemean games in honour of him. (Apollod. iii. 6. § 4.) [L. S.]
ARCHENOR ('Apx^p), one of the Niobids (Hygin. Fab. 11), and perhaps the same who is called by Ovid (Met. vi. 248) Alphenor. The names of the Niobids, however, differ very much in the different lists. [L. S.]
ARCHESITA. [arcesilaus, Artists, No. 4.]
AROHESTRATUS ('Apxforparos). 1. One of the ten crrparyyoi who were appointed to supersede Alcibiades in the command of the Athenian fleet after the battle of Notium, b. c. 407. Xeno-phon and Diodorus, who give us his name in this list, say no more of him ; but we learn from Lysias that he died at Mytilene, and he appears therefore to have been with Conon when Callicratidas chased the Athenian fleet thither from 'E/carJr-v-nffoi (Xen. JM. i. 5. § 16; Diod. xiii. 74, 77, 78; Lys. 'ATroA. Sa>po5. p. 162; Schn. ad Xen. Hell. i. 6. § 16 ; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 119, note 3.)
2. A member of the fiovXri at Athens, who during the siege of the city after the battle of Aegospotami, b. c. 405, was thrown into prison for advising capitulation on the terms required by the Spartans. (Xen. Hell. ii. 2. § 15.)
3. The mover of the decree passed by the Athenians at the instigation of Agnonides, that an embassy should be sent to the Macedonian king Arrhidaeus Philip, and the regent Polysperchon, to accuse Phocion of treason, b. c. 318. (Plut. Plioc. c. 33.) Schneider (ad Xen. Hell. ii. 2. § 15), by a strange anachronism, identifies this Archestratus with the one mentioned immediately ibove. [E. E.]
ARCHESTRATUS (Apxtffrpa-ros). 1. Of 3ela or Syracuse (Athen. i. p. 4, d), but more isually described as a native of Gela, appears to lave lived about the time of the younger Dio-lysius. He travelled through various countries in >rder to become accurately acquainted with every hing which could be used for the table ; and gave he results of his researches in an Epic poem on he Art of Cookery, which was celebrated in an-
tiquity, and is constantly referred to by Athenaeus. In no part of the Hellenic world was the art of good living carried to such an extent as in Sicily (the Siculae dapes, Hor. Carm. iii. 1. 18, became proverbial) ; and Terpsion, who is described as a teacher of Archestratus, had already written a, work on the Art of Cookery. (Athen. viii. p. 337, b.) The work of Archestratus is cited by the ancients under five different titles,—YavrpoXoyia^ racrrpopOjUta, 'O\J/o7roim, AenrvoA(>7i'a, and fH5i>7ra-0e*a. Ennius wrote an imitation or translation of this poem under the title of Carmina Hedypathetica or Hedypatliica. (Apul. Apol. p. 484, Oudend.) Archestratus delivered his precepts in the style and with the gravity of the old gnomic poets, whence he is called in joke the Hesiod or Theognis of gluttons, and his work is referred to as the " Golden Verses," like those of Pythagoras. (Athen. vii. pp, 310, a. 320,f.) His description of the various natural objects used for the table was so accurate, that Aristotle made use of his work in giving an account of the natural history of fishes. The extant fragments have been collected and explained by Schneider, in his edition of Aristotle's Natural History (vol. i. pp. Iv.—Ixxv.), and also by Do-menico Scina, under the title of " I frammenti della Gastronomia di Archestrato raccolti e volga-rizzati," Palermo, 1823, 8vo.
2. The author of a work Uepl Av\r)r£v (Athen. xiv. p. 634, d.) seems to be a different person from the one mentioned above.
ARCHIAS ('Apxias), of Corinth, the founder of Syracuse, b. c. 734. He was a Heracleid, either of the Bacchiad or the Temenid line, and of high account at Corinth. In consequence of the death of Actaeon [actaeon, No. 2] he resolved to leave his country. He consulted the Delphic Oracle, which directed him, says Pausanias, who gives the three hexameters, "to an Ortygia in Trinacria, where Arethusa and Alpheius reappeared." Ac cording to an account given in Strabo, Steph. Byz., and at greater length, with the four verses of the Oracle, by the Scholiast to Aristophanes, he and Myscellus, the founder of Croton, were inquiring together, and when the Pythoness asked which they would choose, health or wealth, Myscellus chose health, and Archias wealth ; a decision with which, it was thought, the after- fortunes of their colonies were connected. Archias sailed in company, we are also told by Strabo, with Chersicrates, his countryman, and left him at Corcyra: as also Myscellus at Croton, in the founding of which he assisted. Thence he pro ceeded to his destination. (Time. vi. 3 ; Plut. Amat. Narr. p. 772 ; Diod. Escc. ii. p. 288 ; Paus. v. 7. § 2 ; Strabo, vi. pp. 262, 269; Steph. Byz. s. v. Syracus.; Schol. ad Arist. Eq. 1089. See also Clinton, F. H. b. c. 734, and vol. ii. pp. 264, 265 ; Muller's Dor. i. 6. § 7.) [A. H. C.]