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ARCHELAUS.

2. A surname of Asclepius, under which he was worshipped at Tithorea in Phocis. (Pans. x. 32. § 8.) [L. S.]

ARCHELAUS ('Apx&aos), a son of Temenus, a Heraclid, who, when expelled by his brothers, fled to king Cisseus in Macedonia. Cisseus pro­mised him the succession to his throne and the hand of his daughter, if he would assist him against his neighbouring enemies. Archelaus performed what was asked of him ; but when, after the defeat of the enemy, he claimed the fulfilment of the pro­mise, Cisseus had a hole dug in the earth, filled it with burning coals, and covered it over with branches, that Archelaus might fall into it. The plan was discovered, and Cisseus himself was thrown into the pit by Archelaus, who then fled, but at the command of Apollo built the town of Aegae on a spot to which he was led by a goat. According to some accounts, Alexander the Great was a descendant of Archelaus. (Hygin. Fab. 219.) Two other mythical personages of this name occur in Apoliodorus. (ii. 1. § 5, 4. § 5, &c.) [L. S.]

ARCHELAUS ('Apx^«°0> the author of a poem consisting of upwards of three hundred bar­barous Greek iambics, entitled Hepi Trjs 'lepas Texas', De Sacra Arte (sc. Chrysopoeia). No­thing is known of the events of his life; his date also is uncertain, but the poem is evidently the work of a comparatively recent writer, and must not be attributed to any of the older authors of this name. It was published for the first time in the second volume of Ideler's Physici et Medici Graeci M mores, Berol. 1842, 8vo.; but a few ex­tracts had previously been inserted by J. S. Bernard, in his edition of Palladius, De Febribus, Lugd. Bat. 1745, 8vo. pp. 160—163. [W. A. G.]

ARCHELAUS ('Apxe'Aoos), one of the illegiti­ mate sons of amyntas II. by Cygnaea. Himself and his two brothers (Archideus or Arrhidaeus. and Menelaus) excited the jealousy of their half- brother Philip; and, this having proved fatal to one of them, the other two fled for refuge to Olynthus. According to Justin, the protection which they obtained thepe gave occasion to the Olynthian war, b. c. 349; and on the capture of the city, b. c. 347, the two princes fell into Philip's hands and were put to death. (Just. vii. 4, viii. 3.) [E. E.]

ARCHELAUS, bishop of caesareia in Cap- padocia, wrote a work against the heresy of the Messalians, which is referred to byPhotius. (Cod. 52.) Cave places him at 440 A. d. (Hist. Lit. sub. ann.) [P. S.]

ARCHELAUS, king op cappadocia. [Ar­chelaus, general of Mithridates, No. 4, p. 263.]

ARCHELAUS, bishop of carrha in Meso­potamia, a. d. 278, held a public dispute with the heretic Manes, an account of which he published in Syriac. The work was soon translated both into Greek and into Latin. (Socrates, H. E. i. 22; Hieron. de Vir. Illustr. 72.) A large fragment of the Latin version was published by Valesius, in his edition of Socrates and Sozomen. The same ver­sion, almost entire, was again printed, with the fragments of the Greek version, by Zaccagnius, n his Colled. Monument. Vet., Rom. 1698, and by Fabricius in his edition of Hippolytus. [P. S.]

ARCHELAUS ('Apx^aos), a Greek geogra->her, who wrote a work in which he described all lie countries which Alexander the Great had tra-rersed. (Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 17.) This statement would

ARCHELAUS.

lead us to conjecture, that Archelaus was a contem­ porary of Alexander, and perhaps accompanied him on his expeditions. But as the work is completely lost, nothing certain can be said about the matter. In like manner, it must remain uncertain whether this Archelaus is the same as the one whose " Eu- boeica" are quoted by Harpocration (s. v. 'Ax6v- vricros, where however Maussac reads ^n$e??zac/m.s), and whose works on rivers and stones are men­ tioned by Plutarch (deFluv. 1 and 9) and Stobaeus. (Ftorileg.i.15.) [L. S.]

ARCHELAUS ('Apx&aos), son of herod the Great by Malthace, a Samaritan woman, is called by Dion Cassius 'HpdSys IlaAcucmjj'os, and was whole brother to Herod Antipas. (Dion Cass. Iv. 27; Joseph. Ant. xvii. 1. § 3? 10. § 1 ;* Bell. Jud. i. 28. § 4.) The will of Herod, which had at first been so drawn up as to exclude Archelaus in consequence of the false represent­ations of his eldest brother Antipater, was after­ward altered in his favour on the discovery of the latter's treachery [see p. 203] ; and, on the death of Herod, he was saluted as king by the army. This title, however, he declined till it should be ratified by Augustus ; and, in a speech to the people after his father's funeral, he made large professions of his moderation and his wil­lingness to redress all grievances. (Joseph. Ant. xvii. 4. § 3, 6. § 1, 8. §§ 2—4 ; BdL Jud. i. 31. § 1, 32. § 7, 33. §§ 7—9.) Immediately after this a serious sedition occurred, which Archelaus quenched in blood (Ant. xvii. 9. §§ 1—3 ; Bell. Jud. ii. 1 ; comp. Ant. xvii. 6 ; Bell. Jud. i. 33), and he then proceeded to Rome to obtain the con­firmation of his father's will. Here he was opposed by Antipas, who was supported by Herod's sister Salome and her son Antipater, and ambassadors also came from the Jews to complain of the cruelty of Archelaus, and to entreat that their country might be annexed to Syria and ruled by Roman governors. The will of Herod was, however, rati­fied in its main points by Augustus, and in the division of the kingdom Archelaus received Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title of Ethnarch, and a promise of that of king should he be found to deserve it. (Ant. xvii. 9, 11; Bell. Jud. ii. 2, 6 ; Euseb. Hist. Ecc. i. 9 ; comp. Luke, xix. 12—27.) On his return from Rome he set the Jewish law at defiance by his marriage 'with Glaphyra (daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappado-cia)? the widow of his brother Alexander, by whom she had children living (Levit. xviii. 16, xx. 21; Deut. xxv. 5) ; and, his general government being most tyrannical, he was again accused before Augustus by the Jews in the 10th year of his reign (a. d. 7), and, as he was unable to clear himself from their charges, he was banished to Vienna in Gaul, where he died. (Ant. xvii. 13 ; Bell. Jud. ii. 7. § 3; Strab. xvi. p. 765 ; Dion Cass. Iv. 27 ; Euseb. Hist. Ecc. i. 9.) [E. E.]

ARCHELAUS (*Apx&cu>s), king of mace­donia, from b. c. 413 to 399. According to Plato, he was an illegitimate son of Perdiccas II. and ob­tained the throne by the murder of his uncle Alee-tas, his cousin, and his half-brother (Plat. Gorg* p. 471; Athen. v. p. 217, d.; Ael. V. H. xii. 43), further strengthening himself by marriage with Cleopatra, his father's widow. (Plat. Gorg. p. 471, c.; Aristot. Polit. v. 10,ed. Bekk.) Nor does there appear to be any valid reason for rejecting this story, in spite' of the silence of Thucydid.es, who

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