The Ancient Library

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On this page: Archaeanactidae – Archagathus – Archebulus – Archedemus – Archedice – Archedicus – Archegetes



work the mosaics in the Mus. Borl. vii. 61, and the Mus. Capit. iv. 19, are supposed to be copies. There were some statues by him of centaurs carry­ ing nymphs, in the collection of Asinius Pollio. He received a talent from Octavius, a Roman knight, for the model of a bowl (crater}, and was engaged by Lucullus to make a statue of Felicitas for 60 sestertia; but the deaths both of the artist and of his patron prevented the completion of the work. (Plin. xxxv. 45, xxxvi. 4. §§ 10, 13 : the reading Arckesitae, in § 10, ought, almost undoubt­ edly, to be Arcesilae or Arcesilai.) [P. S.]

ARCHAEANACTIDAE ('ApxatuvaKrfiat), the name of a race of kings who reigned in the Cimmerian Bosporus forty-two years, b. c. 480— 438. (Diod. xii. 31, with Wesseling's note.)

ARCHAGATHUS CApx&yaeos). 1. The son of Agathocles, accompanied his father in his ex­pedition into Africa, b. c. 310. While there he narrowly escaped being put to death in a tumult of the soldiers, occasioned by his having murdered Lyciscus, who reproached him with committing incest with his step-mother Alcia. When Aga­thocles was summoned from Africa by the state of affairs in Sicily, he left Archagatlms behind in command of the army. He met at first with some success, but was afterwards defeated three times, and obliged to take refuge in Tunis. Agathocles returned to his assistance; but a mutiny of the soldiers soon compelled him to leave Africa again, and Archagathus and his brother were put to death by the troops in revenge, b. c. 307. (Diod. xx. 33, 57—61; Justin. xxii. 8.)

2. The son of the preceding, described as a youth of great bravery and daring, murdered Aga­thocles, the son of Agathocles, that he might suc­ceed his grandfather. He was himself killed by Maenon. (Diod. xxi. Eel. 12.)

ARCHAGATHUS ('ApxdyaQos), a Pelopon- nesian, the son of Lysanias, who settled at Rome as a practitioner of medicine, b. c. 219, and, ac­ cording to Cassius Hemina (as quoted by Pliny, H, N. xxix. 6), was the first person who made it a distinct profession in that city. He was received in the first instance with great respect, the " Jus Quiritium" was given him, and a shop was bought for him at the public expense ; but his practice was observed to be so severe, that he soon excited the dislike of the people at large, and produced a complete disgust to the profession generally. The practice of Archagathus seems to have been almost exclusively surgical, and to have consisted, in a great measure, in the use of the knife and powerful caustic applications. (Bostock, Hist, of Med.) [W. A. G.]

ARCHEBULUS (Apx€§ov\os}, of Thebes, a lyric poet, who appears to have lived about the year b. c. 280, as Euphorion is said to have been instructed by him in poetry. (Suid. s.v. Ei)<£opiW.) A particular kind of verse which was frequently used by other lyric poets, was called after him. (Hephaest. Enchir. p. 27.) Not a fragment of his poetry is now extant. [L. S.]

ARCHEDEMUS or ARCHEDA'MUS (Ap-XeSTj/xos or 'ApxeScfyios). 1. A popular leader at Athens, took the first step against the generals who had gained the battle of Arginusae, b. c. 406, by imposing a fine on Erasinides, and calling him to account in a court of justice for some public money which he had received in the Hellespont. (Xen. Hell. vii. 1. § 2.) This seems to be the same


Archedemus of whom Xenophon speaks in the Memorabilia (ii. 9), as originally poor, but of con­siderable talents both for speaking and public business, and who was employed by Criton to pro­tect him and his friends from the attacks of sycophants. It appears that Archedemus was a foreigner, and obtained the franchise by fraud, for which he was attacked by Aristophanes (Ran. 419) and by Eupolis in the Baptae. (Schol. ad Aristopk. L c.) Both Aristophanes (JKan. 588) and Lysias (c. Alcib. p. 536, ed. Reiske) call him blear-eyed (yXajAwv}.

2. 'O rfo/A?7|, mentioned by Aeschines (c. Cies. p. 531, ed. Reiske), should be distinguished from the preceding.

3. An Aetolian (called Archidamus by Livy), who commanded the Aetolian troops which assist­ed the Romans in their war with Philip. In b. c. 199 he compelled Philip to raise the siege of Thaumaci (Liv. xxxii. 4), and took an active part in the battle of Cynoscephalae, b. c. 197, in which Philip was defeated. (Polyb. xviii. 4.) When the war broke out between the Romans and the Aetolians, he was sent as ambassador to the Achaeans to solicit their assistance, b. c. 192 (Liv. xxxv. 48); and on the defeat of Antiochus the Great in the following year, he -went as ambassador to the consul M\ Acilius Glabrio to sue for peace. (Polyb. xx. 9.) In b. c. 169 he was denounced to the Romans by Lyciscus as one of their enemies. (Polyb. xxviii. 4.) He joined Perseus the same year, and accompanied the Macedonian king in his flight after his defeat in 168. (Liv. xliii. 23, 24, xliv. 43.)

4. Of Tarsus, a Stoic philosopher (Strab. xiv. p. 674 ; Diog. Laert. vii. 40, 68, 84, 88), two of whose works, Tlepl $coj/tjs and Ilepl SroixeiW, are mentioned by Diogenes Laertius. (vii. 557 134.) He is probably the same person as the Archedemus, whom Plutarch (de Eossilio^ p. 605) calls an Athenian, and who, he states, went into the country of the Parthians and left behind him the Stoic succession at Babylon. Archedemus is also mentioned by Cicero (Acad. Q.uaest. ii. 47), Seneca (Epist. 121), and other ancient writers.

ARCHEDICE ('ApxeSfeij), daughter of Hippias the Peisistratid, and given in marriage by him after the death of Hipparchus to Aeantides, son of Hip- poclus, the tyrant of Lampsacus. She is famous for the epitaph given in Thucydides, and ascribed by Aristotle to Simonides, which told that, with father, husband, and sons in sovereign power, still she retained her meekness. (Time. vi. 59 ; Arist. Met. i. 9.) [A. H. C.]

ARCHEDICUS ('Apxe&fcos), an Athenian comic poet of the new comedy, who wrote, at the instigation of Timaeus, against Demochares, the nephew of Demosthenes, and supported Antipater and the Macedonian party. The titles of two of his plays are preserved, Aia/j.aprdva)V and Sricravpos. He nourished about 302 b. c. (Suidas, s. v.; Athen. vi. p. 252, f., vii. pp. 292, e., 294, a. b., x. p. 467, e., xiii. p. 610, f.; Polyb. xii. 13.) [P. S.]

ARCHEGETES ('Apxyyer-ns). 1. A surname of Apollo, under which he was worshipped in se­veral places, as at Naxos in Sicily (Thuc. vi. 3 Pind. Pytli. v. 80), and at Megara. (Paus. i. 42, § 5.) The name has reference either to Apollo as the leader and protector of colonies, or as the founder of towns in general, in which case the impor of the name is nearly the same as

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