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ARATUS,

Tarsus; that he was invited to the court of An-tigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, where he spent all the latter part of his life; and that his chief pursuits were physic (which is also said to have been his profession), grammar, and philoso­phy, in which last he was instructed by the Stoic Dionysius Heracleotes.

Several poetical works on various subjects, as well as a number of prose epistles, are attributed to Aratus (Buhle, vol. ii. p. 455), but none of them have come down to us, except the two poems mentioned above. These have generally been joined together as if parts of the same work ; but they seem to be distinct poems. The first, called Qaivd/jLeva., consists of 732 verses ; the second, Aiocr^/ueTa (Prognostica\ of 422. Eudoxus, about a century earlier, had written two prose works, 3>atvofj-sva. and "'Etvoirrpov, which are both lost; but we are told by the biographers of Ara­tus, that it was the desire of Antigonus to have them turned into verse, which gave rise to the &aiv6(j.€va of the latter writer; and it appears from the fragments of them preserved by Hipparchus (Petav. Uranolog. p. 173, &c., ed. Paris. 1630), that Aratus has in fact versified, or closely imi­tated parts of them both, but especially of the first. The design of the poem is to give an introduction to the knowledge of the constellations, with the rules for their risings and settings ; and of the circles of the sphere, amongst which the milky way is reckoned. The positions of the constella­tions, north of the ecliptic, are described by re­ference to the principal groups surrounding the north pole (the Bears, the Dragon, and Cepheus), whilst Orion servos as a point of departure for those to the south. The immobility of the earth? and the revolution of the heavens about a fixed axis axe maintained ; the path of the sun in the zodiac is described ; but the planets are intro­duced merely as bodies having a motion of their own, without any attempt to define their periods ; nor is anything said about the moon's orbit. The opening of the poem asserts the dependence of all things upon Zeus, and contains the passage rov yap Kal yevos efffj-ev, quoted by St. Paul (Aratus1 fellow-countryman) in his address to the Athenians. (Acts xvii. 28.) From the general want of precision in the descriptions, it would seem that Aratus was neither a mathematician nor observer (comp. Cic. de Orat. i. 16) or, at any rate, that in this work he did not aim at scientific accuracy. He not only represents the configura­tions of particular groups incorrectly, but describes some phaenomena which are inconsistent with any one supposition as to the latitude of the spec­tator, and others which could not coexist at any one epoch. (See the article aratus in the Penny Cyclopaedia.') These errors are partly to be attri­buted to Eudoxus himself, and partly to the way in which Aratus has used the materials supplied by him. Hipparchus (about a century later), who was a scientific astronomer and observer, has left a commentary upon the &aiv6/j.sva of Eudoxus and Aratus, occasioned by the discrepancies which he had noticed between his own observations and their descriptions.

The AiotfTj/xeta consists of prognostics of the weather from astronomical phaenomena, with an account of its effects upon animals. It appears to be an imitation of Hesiod, and to have been imi­tated by Virgil in some parts of the Georgics.

ARBORIUS.

The materials are said to be taken almost wholly from Aristotle's Meteorologica, from the work of Theophrastus, " De Signis Ventorum," and from Hesiod. (Buhle, vol. ii. p. 471.) Nothing is said in either poem about Astrology in the proper sense of the word.

The style of these two poems is distinguished by the elegance and accuracy resulting from a study of ancient models; but it wants originality and poetic elevation; and variety of matter is excluded by the nature of the subjects. (See Quintil. x* 1.) That they became very popular both in the Grecian and Roman world (comp. Ov. Am. i. 15. 16) is proved by the number of commentaries and Latin translations. The Introduction to the 3»aW/uej/a by Achilles Tatius, the Commentary of Hippar­chus in three books, and another attributed by Petavius to Achilles Tatius, are printed in the Uranologium, with a list of other Commentators (p. 267), which includes the names of Aristarchus, Geminus, and Eratosthenes. Parts of three poetical Latin translations are preserved. One written by Cicero when very young (Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 41), one by Caesar Germanicus, the grandson of Augustus, and one by Festus Avienus. The earliest edition of Aratus is that of Aldus. (Ven. 1499, fol.) The principal later ones are by Grotius (Lugd. Bat. 1600, 4to.), Buhle (Lips. 1793, 1801, 2 vols. 8vo., with the three Latin versions), Matthiae (Francof. 1817, 8vo.), Voss (Heidelb. 1824, 8vo., with a German poetical version), Butt-mann (BeroL 1826, 8vo.), and Bekker. (Berol. 1828, 8vo.)

(Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iv. p. 87; Schaubach, Gescli. d. cjriech. Astronomie, p. 215, &c.; Delambre, Hist, de VAstron. Ancienne.) [W. F. D.]

ARATUS ("Aparos), of Cnidus, the author of a history of Egypt. (Anonym. Vit. Arat.}

ARBACES ('ApSdicris). 1. The founder of the Median empire, according to the account of Ctesias (ap. Diod. ii. 24, &c.? 32). He is said to have taken Nineveh in conjunction with Belesis, the Babylonian, and to have destroyed the old Assyrian empire under the reign of Sardanapalus, jb. c. 876. Ctesias assigns 28 years to the reign of Arbaces, B. c. 876—848, and makes his dynasty consist o' eight kings. This account differs from that o: Herodotus, who makes Deioces the first king o Media, and assigns only four kings to his dynasty [deioces.] Ctesias' account of the overthrow o the Assyrian empire by Arbaces is followed b? Velleius Paterculus (i. 6), Justin (i. 3), and Strabc (xvi. p. 737.)

2. A commander in the army of Artaxerxes which fought against his brother Cyrus, b. c. 401 He was satrap of Media. (Xen. Anab. i. 7. § 1< vii. 8. § 25.)

ARBITER, PETRO'NIUS. [petronil

TjT3rrpyr> ~J

ARBORIUS, AEMI'LIUS MAGNUS, tl author of a poem in ninety-two lines in elegij verse, entitled " Ad Nympham nimis cultam, which contains a great many expressions take from the older poets, and bears all the traces of tl artificial labour which characterizes the later Lat poetry. It is printed in the Anthology of Bu mann (iii. 275) and Meyer (Ep. 262), and Wernsdorf's Poet. Lat. Minor, (iii. p. 217.) T author of it was a rhetorician at Tolosa in Ga1 the maternal uncle of Ausonius, who speaks of h with great praise, and mentions that he enjoy

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