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APOLLONIUS.

and healing the sick, the sudden disappearances and reappearances of Apollonius, his adventures in the cave of Trophonius, and the sacred voice which called him at his death, to which may be added his claim as a teacher having authority to reform the world—cannot fail to suggest the parallel pas­sages in the Gospel history. We know, too, that Apollonius was one among many rivals set up by the Eclectics (as, for instance, by Hierocles of Nicomedia in the time, of Diocletian) to our Saviour —an attempt, it may be worth remarking, renewed by the English freethinkers, Blount and Lord Her­bert. Still it must be allowed that the resem­blances are very general, that where Philostratus has borrowed from the Gospel narrative, it is only as he has borrowed from all other wonderful his­tory, and that the idea of a controversial aim is inconsistent with the account which makes the life written by Damis the groundwork of the more re­cent story. Moreover, Philostratus wrote at the command of the empress Julia Domna, and was at the time living in the palace of Alexander Severus, who worshipped our Lord with Orpheus and Apollonius among his Penates : so that it seems improbable he should have felt any peculiar hosti­lity to Christianity; while, on the other hand, he would be acquainted with the general story of our Lord's life, from which he might naturally draw many of his own incidents. On the whole, then, we conclude with Ritter, that the life of Apollonius was not written with a controversial aim, as the resemblances, although real, only indicate that a few things were borrowed, and exhibit no trace of a systematic parallel. (Ritter, Gescliichte der Phil. vol. iv. p. 492.)

III. The character of Apollonius as well as the facts of his life bear a remarkable resemblance to those of Pythagoras, whom he professedly followed. Tra­vel, mysticism, and disputation, are the three words in which the earlier half of both their lives may be summed up. There can be no doubt that Apollo­nius pretended to supernatural powers, and was variously regarded by the ancients as a magician and a divine being. The object of his scheme, as far as it can be traced, was twofold—partly philo­sophical and partly religious. As a philosopher, he is to be considered as one of the middle terms between the Greek and Oriental systems, which he endeavoured to harmonize in the symbolic lore of Pythagoras. The Pythagorean doctrine of numbers, and their principles of music and astro­nomy, he looked upon as quite subordinate, while his main eiforts were directed to re-establish the old religion on a Pythagorean basis. His aim was to purify the worship of Paganism from the corruptions which he said the fables of the poets had introduced, and restore the rites of the temples in all their power and meaning. In his works on divination by the stars, and on offerings, he rejects sacrifices as impure in the sight of God. All ob­jects of sense, even fire, partook of a material and corruptible nature : prayer itself should be the un­tainted offering of the heart, and was polluted by passing through the lips. (Euseb. Prep. Ev. iv. 13.) This objection to sacrifice was doubtless connected with the Pythagorean doctrine of the transmigra­tion of souls. In the miracles attributed to him we see the same trace of a Pythagorean character: they are chiefly prophecies, and it is not the power of controlling the laws of nature which Apollonius lays claim to, but rather a wonder-

APOLLONIUS.

working secret, which gives him a deeper insight into them than is possessed by ordinary men. Upon the whole, we may place Apollonius mid­way between the mystic philosopher and the mere impostor, between Pythagoras and Lucian's Alex­ander; and in this double character he was re­garded by the ancients themselves.

The following list of Apollonius's works has come down to us : 1. "Tpvos els Wlvrifjt.oo'vvai'. (Philostr. Vit. Apoll. i. 14; Suidas, s. v. Apoll) 2. Uvdaydpov <!>o|ou, and 3. UvQajopov /3tos, men­ tioned by Suidas, and probably (see Ritter) one of the works which, according to Philostratus (viiL 19), Apollonius brought with him from the cave of Trophonius. 4. Ataflirj/cTj, written in Ionic Greek. (Phil. i. 3; vii. 39.) 5. *AnoXoyia. against a complaint of Euphrates the philosopher to Domi- tian. (viii. 7.) 6. Ilepl /.tayreias aarepwi/. 7. TeAeraJ $ irepl §vai£>v. (iii. 41, iv. 19; Euseb. Ptep. Ev. iv. 13.) 8. X/^o^oi, quoted by Suidas. 9. Nux^juepof, a spurious work. 10. 'ETTKTToXal LXXXV. Bp. Lloyd supposes those which are still extant to be a spurious work. On the other hand, it must be allowed that the Laconic brevity of their style suits well with the authorita­ tive character of the philosopher. They were cer­ tainly not inventions of Philostratus, and are not wholly the same with the collection to which he refers. The 'AiroXoyia which is given by Philos­ tratus (viii. 7) is the only other extant writing of Apollonius. [B. J.J

APOLLONIUS, artists. 1. apollonius and tauriscus of Tralles, were two brothers, and the sculptors of the group which is commonly known as the Farnese bull, representing the punishment of Dirce bjT Zethus and Amphion. [DiRCE.] It was taken from Rhodes to Rome by Asinius Pollio, and afterwards placed in the baths of Caracalla, where it was dug up in the sixteenth century, and deposited in the Farnese palace. It is now at Naples. After its discovery, it was restored, in a manner not at all in keeping with its style, by Battista Bianchi of Milan. There is some reason to believe that additions were made to it in the time of Caracalla. It was originally formed out of one block of marble. A full description of the group is given by Winckelmann, who distinguishes the old parts from the new.

From the style of the ancient portions of the group, Winckelmann and Muller refer its execution to the same period to which they imagine the Laocoon to belong, that is, the period after Alex­ander the Great. Both groups belong to the same school of art, the Rhodian, and both probably tc the same period. If, therefore, we admit the force of the arguments of Lessing and Thiersch respect­ing the date of the Laocoon [ageladas], we maj infer, that the Farnese bull was newly executed when Asinius Pollio took it to Rome, and conse­quently, that Apollonius and Tauriscus flourished at the beginning of the first century of the Chris­tian aera. It is worth while to notice, that w< have no history of this work before its remova from Rhodes to Rome.

Pliny says of Apollonius and Tauriscus, "Pa rentum ii certamen de se fecere: Menecraten videri professi, sed esse naturalem Artemidoram,' which is understood to mean, that they placed ai inscription on their work, expressing a doubt whe ther their father, Artemidorus, or their teacher Menecrates, ought to be considered their true

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