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apollonius.

a very flattering letter of recommendation to Cae­sar. (Cic. ad Famil. xiii. 6.)

13. A christian writer, whose parents and country are unknown, but who is believed to have been bishop of Ephesus, and to have lived about the year a. D. 192. He wrote a work exposing the errors and the conduct of the Christian sect called Cataphryges, some fragments of which are preserved in Eusebius. (Hist. Eccles. v. 18, 21.) Tertullian defended the sect of the Montanists against this Apollonius, and the seventh book of his work irep\ eifffrdcrecas was especially directed against Apollonius. (Auctor Praedestinati, cc. 26, 27, 68; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 53; Fabric. BibL Graec.vn. p. 164.)

14. A christian, who suffered martyrdom at Rome in the reign of Commodus. He is said to have been a Roman senator. At his trial he made a beautiful defence of Christianity in the Roman senate, which was afterwards translated into Greek and inserted by Eusebius in his history of the Martyrs, but is now lost. (Hieronym. Epist. 84, Catalog. 42, 53 ; Euseb. Hist. Eccles. v. 21.) Ni-cephorus (iv. 26) confounds the martyr Apollonius with Apollonius the writer against the Cataphryges. (Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 53; Fabric. BibL Grace, vii. p. 163.)

15. Surnamed cronos, a native of lassus in Caria, was a philosopher of the Megarian school, a pupil of Eubulides, and teacher of the celebrated Diodorus, who received from his master the surname Cronos. (Strab. xiv. p, 658; Diog. Lae'rt, ii. 111.)

16. Surnamed dyscolos, that is, the ill-tem­pered, was a son of Mnesitheus and Ariadne, and born at Alexandria, where he flourished in the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. He was >ne of the most renowned grammarians of his ;ime, partly on account of his numerous and ex-:ellent works, and partly on account of his son, ielius Herodian, who had been educated by him, md was as great a grammarian as himself. Ipollonius is said to have been so poor, that he vas obliged to write on shells, as he had no means 'f procuring the ordinary writing materials; and his poverty created that state of mind to which ;e owed the surname of Dyscolos. He lived and ras buried in that part of Alexandria which was ailed Bruchium or Tlvpov%&iov. But, unless he is onfounded with Apollonius of Chalcis, he also pent some time at Home, where he attracted the ttention of the emperor M. Antoninus.

Apollonius and his son are called by Priscian in

3veral passages the greatest of all grammarians, and

e declares, that it was only owing to the assistance

rhich he derived from their works that he was

labled to undertake his task. (Priscian, Praef.

i libb. i. and vi. viii. p. 833, ix. init. and p. 941.)

_e was the first who reduced grammar to anything

ke a system, and is therefore called by Priscian

grammaticorum princeps." A list of his works,

ost of which are lost, is given by Suidas, and a

ore complete one in Fabricius. (BibL Graec. vi.

272, &c.) We confine ourselves here to those

hich are still extant. 1. Ylepl awrd^tas tqv

ryou /xepwi/, "de Constructione Orationis," or

de Ordinatione sive Constructione Dictionum,"

. four books. The first edition of this work is the

Idine. (Venice, 1495, fol.) A much better one,

ith a Latin translation and notes, was published

Fr. Sylburg, Frankf. 1590, 4to. The last edi-

>ri, which was greatly corrected by the assistance

APOLLONIUS.

of four new MSS.*, is I. Bekker's, Berlin, 1817, 8vo. 2. Ilepl avT<avv}jiias, " de Pronomine liber," was first edited by I. Bekker in the Museum. Antiq. Stud. i. 2, Berlin, 1811, 8vo., and afterwards separately, Berlin, 1814, 8vo. 3. Hepl o'wSeaTxwj', "de Con­junct] on ibus," and 4. Hepl emppTjjuaT&jy, " de Adverbiis," are both printed in Bekker's Anecdot. ii. p. 477, &c.

Among the works ascribed to Apollonius by Suidas there is one irepl /caTevf/eucTjUe^s toTopi'as, on fictitious or forged histories. It is generally believed that the work of one Apollonius, which was published together with Antoninus Liberalis by Xylander, under the title t4 Historiae Commen-titiae," (Basel, 1568, 8vo.,) is the same as the work ascribed by Suidas to Apollonius Dyscolos ; and Meursius and subsequently L. H. Teucher published the work with the name of Apollonius Dyscolos. This work thus edited three times is a collection of wonderful phenomena of nature, ga­thered from the works of Aristotle, Theophrastus, and others. Now this is something very different from what the title of the work mentioned by Suidas would lead us to expect; that title can mean nothing else than, that Apollonius Dyscolos wrote a work which was an exposition of certain errors or forgeries which had crept into history. Phlegon, moreover, quotes from the work of Apollonius Dyscolos passages which are not to be found in the one which Meursius and others ascribe to him. (Phlegon, cc. 11, 13, 17.) The conclusion there­fore must be, that the work of Apollonius Dyscolos irepi KocTt^evff/Jievirjs Iffropias is lost, and that the one which has been mistaken for it belongs to an Apollonius who is otherwise unknown. (Wester-mann, Scriptores Rerum mirabil. p. 20, &c., where the work of the unknown Apollonius is also incor­porated, pp. 103—116.)

17- A native of egypt, a writer who is refer­red to by Theophilus Antiochenus (ad Autolyc. iii. pp. 127, 136, 139) as an authority respecting va­rious opinions upon the age of the world. Whether he is the same as the Apollonius from whom Athe-naeus (v. p. 191) quotes a passage concerning the symposia of the ancient Egyptians, is uncertain. The number of persons of the name of Apollonius, who were natives of Egypt, is so great, that unless some other distinguishing epithet is added, it is impossible to say who they were. An Apollonius, an Egyptian, is mentioned as a soothsayer, who prophesied the death of Caligula. (Dion Cass. lix. 29.)

18. Surnamed eidographus (elSo^pa^os), a writer referred to by the Scholiast on Pindar (Pyth. ii. 1) respecting a contest in which Hiero won the prize. Some writers have thought he was a poet, but from the Etymol. M. (s. v. eiSoSea) it is probable that he was some learned grammarian.

19. Of laodicea, is said to have written five books on astrology (astrologia apotelesmaticd) in which he accused the Egyptians of various astro­nomical errors. (Paulus Alex. Praef. ad Isagog.} In the royal library of Paris there exists a MS. containing " Apotelesmata" of one Apollonius, which Fabricius believes to be the work of Apollo­nius of Laodicea.

20. Of myndus, lived at the time of Alexander the Great, and was particularly skilled in explain­ing nativities. He professed to have learned his art from the Chaldeans. (Senec. Q.uacst. Nat. vii. 3 and 17.) His statements respecting the

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