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APOLLO.

justly remarks, that it would be a strange pheno­menon if this identity should have fallen into oblivion for several centuries, and then have been revived. This objection is indeed strong, but not insurmountable if we recollect the tendency of the Greeks to change a peculiar attribute of a god into a separate divinity ; and this process, in regard to Helios and Apollo, seems to have taken place pre­vious to the time of Homer. M 'tiller's view of Apollo, which is at least very ingenious, is briefly this. The original and essential feature in the character of Apollo is that of "the averter of evil"

he is originally a divinity peculiar to the Doric race ; and the most ancient seats of his worship are the Thessalian Tempe and Delphi. From thence it was transplanted to Crete, the inha­bitants of which spread it over the coasts of Asia Minor and parts of the continent of Greece, such as Boeotia and Attica. In the latter country it

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was introduced during the immigration of the lonians, whence the god became the 'ATroAAce^ Trarp^os of the Athenians. The conquest of Pelo­ponnesus by the Dorians raised Apollo to the rank of the principal divinity in the peninsula. The 3A7roA?\wz> polos' was originally a local divinity of the shepherds of Arcadia, who was transformed into and identified with, the Dorian Apollo during the process in which the latter became the national divinity of the Peloponnesians. In the same man­ner as in this instance the god assumed the cha­racter of a god of herds and flocks, his character was changed and modified in other parts of Greece also : with the Hyperboreans he was the god of prophecy, and with the Cretans the god with bow and darts. In Egypt he was made to form a part of their astronomical system, which was afterwards introduced into Greece, where it became the pre­valent opinion of the learned.

But whatever we may think of this and other modes of explaining the origin and nature of Apollo, one point is certain and attested by thousands of facts, that Apollo and his worship, his festivals and oracles, had more influence upon the Greeks than any other god. It may safely be asserted, that the Greeks would never have become what they were, without the worship of Apollo : in him the brightest side of the Grecian mind is reflected. Respecting his festivals, see Diet, of Ant. s. v. 'A-TroAActwa, Thargelia, and others.

In the religion of the early Romans there is no trace of the worship of Apollo. The Romans be­came acquainted with this divinity through the Greeks, and adopted all their notions and ideas about him from the latter people. There is no doubt that the Romans knew of his worship among the Greeks at a very early time, and tradition says that they consulted his oracle at Delphi even be­fore the expulsion of the kings. But the first time that we hear of the worship of Apollo at Rome is in the year b. c. 430, 'when, for the purpose of averting a plague, a temple was raised to him, and soon after dedicated by the consul, C. Julius. (Liv. iv. 25, 29.) A second temple was built to him in the year b. c. 350. One of these two (it is not certain which) stood outside the porta Capena. During the second Punic war, in b. c. 212, the ludi Apollinares weae instituted in honour of Apollo. (Li'v. xxv. 12; Macrob. Sat, i. 17; Diet, of Ant. s. v. Ludi Apollinares; comp. Ludi Saeculares.} The worship of this divinity, however, did not form a very prominent part in the religion of the

APOLLODORUS.

Romans till the time of Augustus, who, after the battle of Actium, not only dedicated to him a por­tion of the spoils, but built or embellished his tem­ple at Actium, and founded a new one at Rome on the Palatine, and instituted quinquennial games at Actium. (Suet. Aug. 31, 52; D'ict. of Ant. s.v. 'A/ma; Hartinig, die Religion der JRoiner, ii. p. 205.)

Apollo, the national divinity of the Greeks, was of course represented in all the ways which tin? plastic arts were capable of. As the ideas of the god became gradually and more and more fully de­ veloped, so his representations in works of art rose from a rude wooden image to the perfect ideal of youthful manliness, so that he appeared to the an­ cients in the light of a twin brother of Aphrodite. (Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 4. § 10.) The most beautiful and celebrated among the extant representations of Apollo are the Apollo of Belvedere at Rome, which was discovered in 1503 at Rettuno (Mm. Pio-Clem, i. 14, 15), and the Apollino at Florence. (Hirt. Mytliol. Bilderlucii, i. p. 29, &c.) In the Apollo of Belvedere, the god is represented with com­ manding but serene majesty ; sublime intellect and physical beauty are combined in it in the most wonderful manner. The forehead is higher than in other ancient figures, and on it there is a pair of locks, while the rest of his hair flows freely down on his neck. The limbs are well propor­ tioned and harmonious, the muscles are not worked out too strongly, and at the hips the figure is ra­ ther thin in proportion to the breast. (Buttmann, Mytkologus, i. p. 1-22 ; G. Hermann, Dissertatio de Apolline et Diana, 2 parts, Leipzig, 1836 and 1837; Miiller, Dorians, book ii.) [L. S.]

APOLLOCRATES ('A-n-oAAo/cpar^s), the elder son of Dionysius, the Younger, was left by his father in command of the island and citadel of Syracuse, but was compelled by famine to surren­der them to Dion, about b. c. 354. He was allowed to sail away to join his father in Italy. (Pint. Dion, 37, &c., 56; Strab. vi. p. 259 ; Nepos, Dion., 5 5 Aelian, V. H. ii. 41.) Athenaeus speaks (vi. pp. 435, f., 436, a.) of Apollocrates as the son of the elder Dionysius ; but this must be a mistake, unless we suppose with K'uhn (ad Ael. I. c.), that there were two persons of this name, one a son of the elder and the other of the younger Dionysius.

APOLLODORUS(5A7roAAo'§a;oos) 1. Of achar-ne in Attica, son of Pasion, the celebrated banker, who died b. c. 370, when his son Apollodorus was twenty-four years of age. (Dem. pro Phorm. p. 951.) His mother, who married Phormion, a freedman of Pasion, after her husband's death, lived ten years longer, and after her death in b. c. 360, Phormion became the guardian of her younger son, Pasicles. Several years later (b. c. 350)? Apollodorus brought an action against Phormion, for whom Demosthenes wrote a defence, the oration for Phormion, which is still extant. In this year, Apollodorus was archon eponymus at Athens. (Diod. xvi. 46.) When Apollodorus afterwards at­tacked the witnesses who had supported Phormion, Demosthenes wrote for Apollodorus the two orations still extant /caret ^retydvov. (Aeschin. de Fals. Ley. p. 50 ; Plut. Demosth. 15.) Apollodorus had many and very important law-suits, in most of which Demosthenes wrote the speeches for him (Clinton. Fast.Hell. ii. p. 440, &c. 3d. ed.) [demosthenes]; the latest of them is that against Neaera, in whicli Apollodorus is the pleader, and which may perhaps

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