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On this page: Apemius – Aper – Apesantius – Aphacitis – Aphepsion – Aphneius

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APHAREUS.

Aristotle's works, which had been given by tha.t philosopher, on his death-bed, to Theophrastus, and by him to Neleus, who carried them to Scepsis, in Troas, where they remained, having been hidden and much injured in a cave, till they were pur­ chased by Apellicon, who published a very faulty edition of them. Upon the arrival of the MSS. at Rome, they were examined by the grammarian Tyrannion, who furnished copies of them to An- dronicus of Rhodes, upon which the latter founded his edition of Aristotle. [andkonicus of Rhodes.] [P. S.]

APEMIUS ('A-mfyuos), a surname of Zeus, under which he had an altar on mount Parnes in Attica, on which sacrifices were offered to him. (Pans. i. 32. § 2.) [L. S.J

APER, a Greek grammarian, who lived in Rome in the time of Tiberius. He belonged to the school of Aristarchus, and was the instructor of Heracleides Ponticus. He was a strenuous oppo­ nent of the grammarian Didymus. (Suidas, s. v. •HpewcAe/fys.) [C.P.M.]

M. APER, a Roman orator and a native of Gaul, rose by his eloquence to the rank of Quaes­tor, Tribune, and Praetor, successively. He is introduced as one of the speakers in the Dialogue de Oratoribus, attributed to Tacitus, defending the style of oratory prevalent in his day against those who advocated the ancient form. (See cc. 2, 7, &c.) APER, A'PvRIUS, the praetorian praefect, and the son-in-law of the emperor Numeiian, murdered the emperor, as it was said, on the retreat of the army from Persia to the Hellespont. He carefully concealed the death of Numerian, and issued all the orders in his name, till the soldiers learnt the truth by breaking into the imperial tent on the Hellespont. They then elected Diocletian as his successor, A. d. 284, who straightway put Aper to death with his own hand without any trial. Vo-piscus relates that Diocletian did this to fulfil a prophecy which had been delivered to him by a female Druid, " Imperator eris, cum Aprum oc-cideris.'" (Vopisc. Numer. 12—14; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. 38, 39, Epit. 38 ; Eutrop. ix. 12, 13.)

APESANTIUS ('ATreffaWios), a surname of Zeus, under which he had a temple on mount Apesas near Nemea, where Perseus was said to have first offered sacrifices to him. (Paus. ii. 15. § 3 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Adeems.) [L. S.]

APHACITIS ('A</>a/cms), a surname of Aphro­dite, derived from the town of Aphace in Coele-Syria, where she had a celebrated temple with a,n oracle, which was destroyed by the command of the emperor Constantine. (Zosimus, i. 58.) [L. S.J APHAEA. [britomartis.] APHA'REUS ('Adxycik), a son of the Messe-nian king Perieres and Gorgophone, the daughter of Perseus. (Apollod. i. 9. § 5.) His wife is called by Apollodorus (iii. 10. § 3) Arene, and by others Polydora or Laocoossa. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 152 ; Theocrit. xxii. 106.) Aphareus had three sons, Lynceus, Idas, and Peisus. He was believed to have founded the town of Arene in Messenia, which he called after his wife. He received Neleus and Lycus, the son of Pandion, who had fled from their countries into his dominions. To the former he assigned a tract of land in Messenia, and from the latter he and his family learned the orgies of the great gods. (Paus. iv. 2. § 3, &c.) Pausanias in this passage mentions only the two sons of Aphareus, Idas and Lynceus, who are celebrated

APHTHONIUS.

in ancient story under the name of 'A^ap^rtSat 01 'A<£a/?77Tia5cu, for their fight with the Dioscuri, which is described by Pindar. (Nem. x. Ill, &c.j Two other mythical personages of this name occur in Horn. II. xiii. 541; Ov. Met. xii. 341. [L. S.] APHA'REUS (5A</>apeus), an Athenian oratoi and tragic poet, was a son of the rhetorician Hip- pias and Plathane. After the death of his father, his mother married the orator Isocrates, whc adopted Aphareus as his son. He was trained ir the school of Isocrates, and is said to have writter judicial and deliberative speeches (\6yoi sikcwi/co! Kcd cru/x.gouAeim/coi). An oration of the formei kind, of which we know only the name, was writ­ ten and spoken by Aphareus on behalf of Isocratef against Megacleides. (Pint. Vit. X. Orat. p. 839 Dionys. Isocr. 18, Dinarch. 13; Eudoc. p. 67 Suid. s. v.; Phot. Cod. 260.) According to Plu­ tarch, Aphareus wrote thirty-seven tragedies, bir the authorship of two of them was a matter of dis­ pute. He began his career as a tragic writer ir b. c. 369, and continued it till b. c. 342. H( gained four prizes in tragedy, two at the Dionysn and two at the Lenaea. His tragedies formec tetralogies, i. e. four were performed at a time ant formed a didascalia; but no fragments, not even i title of any of them, have come down to us. [L. S. APHEIDAS ('AcpeiSas), a son of Areas In Leaneira, or according to others, by Meganeira Chrysopeleia, or Erato. (Apollod. iii. 9. § 1. When Apheidas and his two brothers had growl up, their father divided his kingdom among them Apheidas obtained Tegea and the surrounding territory, which Avas therefore called by poets thi K\T)pos 'Ac/)6i8ai/T6ios-. Apheidas had a son, Aleus (Paus. viii. 4. § 2 ; aleus.) Two other mythica personages of this name occur in Horn. Od. xxiv 305 ; Ov. Met. xii. 317. [L. S.]

APHEPSION (5A<£evJ,'iW), a son of Bathippu? who commenced operations against the law c Leptines respecting the abolition of exemption from liturgies. Bathippus died soon after, and hi son Aphepsion resumed the matter. He was joine by Ctesippus. Phormion, the orator, spoke fc Aphepsion, and Demosthenes for Ctesippus. (A) gum. ad Dem. Leptin. p. 453 ; Dem. c. Le.pt. p. 501 Wolf, Proleg. in Demostli. Le.pt. p. 48, £c., pp. 5 —56.) [L. S.]

APHNEIUS ('A4>m.os), the giver of food c plenty, a surname of Ares, under which he had temple on mount Cnesius, near Tegea in Arcadi; Ae'rope, the daughter of Cepheus, became by Arc the mother of a son (Ae'ropus), but she died at tl: moment she gave birth to the child, and Are wishing to save it, caused the child to derive foe from the breast of its dead mother. This woncL gave rise to the surname 'A<£>i/€ios. (Paus. viii. 4 § 6.) [L. S.] APHRODISIA'NUS, a Persian, wrote a d scription of the east in Greek, a fragment of whi< is given by Du Cange. (Ad Zouar. p. 50.) A extract from this work is said to exist in the roy library at Vienna. He also wrote an historic work on the Virgin Mary. (Fabric. Bibl. Grcu xi. p. 578.) [P. S.] APHRODI'SIUS, SCRIBO'NIUS, a Rom; grammarian, originally a slave' and disciple Orbilius, was purchased by Scribonia, the first w; of Augustus, and by her manumitted. (Suet. Illustr. Gram. 19.) ^APHTHO'NIUS ('A^oVjos), of Antioch,

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