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APELLES.

Huds.) Comp. Quintil. xi. 2. § 14 ; Bockh, Praef. id Scltol. Find. p. xxiii., &c. 2. A sceptical philosopher. (Diog. Laert. ix. 106.) A PELL AS ('ATreAAas), a sculptor, who made, n bronze, statues of worshipping females (adorantes I'minaS) Plin. xxxiv. 19. § 26). He made the statue of Cynisca, who conquered in the chariot-'ace at Olympia. (Pans. vi. 1. § 2.) Cynisca vas sister to Agesilaus, king of Sparta, who died it the age of 84, in 362 b. c. Therefore the vic-

•ory of Cynisca, and the time when Apellas flou-

•ished, may be placed about 400 b. c. His name ndicates his Doric origin. (Tblken, Amalthea^ iii. ). 128.) [P. S.]

APELLES ('ATreAAas). 1. One of the guar-lians of Philip V., king of Macedonia. [Pm-,ifpus V.]

2. Perhaps a son of the preceding, was a friend if Philip V., and accompanied his son Demetrius o Rome, b.c. 183. (Polyb. xxiii. 14, &c., xxiv. 1.)

3. Of Ascalon, was the chief tragic poet in the ime of Caligula, with whom he lived on the most ntimate terms. (Philo, Legal, ad Caium, p. 790; 3ion Cass. lix. 5; Suet. Col. 33.)

APELLES ('ATreAATjs), the most celebrated of Grecian painters, was born, most probably, at Colophon in Ionia (Suidas, s. v.), though Pliny xxxv. 36. § 10) and Ovid (Art. Am. iii. 401 ; '^ont. iv. 1. 29) call him a Coan. The account f Strabo (xiv. p. 642) and Lucian (De Column. ix. §§ 2, 6), that he was an Ephesian, may be ex-

dained from the statements of Suidas, that he was aade a citizen at Ephesus, and that he studied 'ainting there under Ephorus. He afterwards tudied under Pamphilus of Amphipolis, to whom .e paid the fee of a talent for a ten-years' course of instruction. (Suidas, s. v.; Plin. xxxv. 36. § 8.) U a later period, when he had already gained a igh reputation, he went to Sicyon, and again paid

talent for admission into the school of Melan-hius, whom he assisted in his portrait of the yrant Aristratus. (Pint. Aral. 13.) By this uurse of study he acquired the scientific accuracy f the Sicyonian school, as well as the elegance of he Ionic.

The best part of the life of Apelles was probably pent at the court of Philip and Alexander the ireat ; for Pliny speaks of the great number of his ortraits of both those princes (xxxv. 36. § 16), nd states that he was the only person whom Alexander would permit to take his portrait, (vii. 8; see also Cic. ad Fain. v. 12. § 13; Hor. ?p. ii. 1. 239; Valer. Max. viii. 11. § 2, ext. ; Irrian, Anab. i. 16. § 7.) Apelles enjoyed the :'iendsliip of Alexander, who used to visit him in is studio. In one of these visits, when the king's onversation was exposing his ignorance of art, ipelles politely advised him to be silent, as the oys who were grinding the colours were laughing t him. (Plin. xxxv. 36. § 12.) Plutarch relates lis speech as having been made to Megabyzus. De Tranq. Anim. 12, p. 471, f.) Aelian tells the necdote of Zeuxis and Megabyzus. ( Vor. Hist. ii. .) Pliny (/. c.) also tells us that Apelles, having een commissioned by Alexander to paint his fa-ourite concubine, Campaspe (TlayKda-Tir), Aelian, rar. Hist. xii. 34), naked, fell in love with her, pon which Alexander gave her to him as a pre-3iit; and according to some she was the model of le painter's best picture, the Venus Anadyomene. 'rom all the information we have of the connexion

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APELLES.

of Apelles with Alexander, we may safely conclude that the former accompanied the latter into Asia. After Alexander's death he appears to have travelled through the western parts of Asia. To this period we may probably refer his visit to Rhodes and his intercourse with Protogenes. (See below.) Being driven by a storm to Alexandria, after the assumption of the regal title by Ptolemy, whose favour he had not gained while he was with Alexander, his rivals laid a plot to ruin him, which he defeated by an ingenious use of his skill in drawing. (Plin. xxxv. 36. § 13.) Lucian relates that Apelles was accused by his rival Antiphilus of having had a share in the conspiracy of Theo-dotus at Tyre, and that when Ptolemy discovered the falsehood of the charge, he presented Apelles with a hundred talents, and gave Antiphilus to him as a slave : Apelles commemorated the event in an allegorical picture. (De Column, lix. §§ 2— 6, vol. iii. pp. 127—132.) Lucian's words imply that he had seen this picture, but he may have been mistaken in ascribing it to Apelles. He seems also to speak of Apelles as if he had been living at Ptolemy's court before this event oc­curred. If, therefore, Pliny and Lucian are both to be believed, we may conclude, from comparing their tales, that Apelles, having been accidentally driven to Alexandria, overcame the dislike which Ptolemy bore to him, and remained in Egypt dur­ing the latter part of his life, enjoying the favour of that king, in spite of the schemes of his rivals to disgrace him. The accoiint of his life cannot be carried further; we are not told when or where he died; but from the above facts his date can be fixed, since he practised his art before the death of Philip (b. c. 336), and after the assumption of the regal title by Ptolemy. (b. c. 306.) As the result of a minute examination of all the facts, Tolken (Amaltli. iii. pp. 117—119) places him between 352 and 308 b. c. According to Pliny, he flou­rished about the 112th Olympiad, b. c. 332.

Many anecdotes are preserved of Apelles and his contemporaries, which throw an interesting light both on his personal and his professional cha­racter. He was ready to acknowledge that in some points he was excelled by other artists, as by Am-phion in grouping and by Asclepiodorus in per­spective. (Plin. xxxv. 36. § 10.) He first caused the merits of Protogenes to be understood. Coming to Rhodes, and finding that the works of Proto­genes were scarcely valued at all by his country­men, he offered him fifty talents for a single picture, and spread the report that he meant to sell the picture again as his own. (Plin. ib. § 13.) In speaking of the great artists who were his con­temporaries, he ascribed to them every possible excellence except one, namely, grace, which he claimed for himself alone. (76. § 10.)

Throughout his whole life, Apelles laboured to improve himself, especially in drawing, which he never spent a day without practising. (Plin. ib. § 12 ; hence the proverb Nulla dies sine lineal) The tale of his contest with Protogenes affords an example both of the skill to which Apelles attained in this portion of his art, and of the importance attached to it in all the great schools of Greece.

Apelles had sailed to Rhodes, eager to meet Protogenes. Upon landing, he went straight to that artist's studio. Protogenes was absent, but a large panel ready to be painted on hung in the studio. Apelles seized the pencil, and drew an

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