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ANTONIUS.

tonins represents also the head of his brother, M. Antonius, the triumvir, with the inscription : M. ant. im(p). avg. IlIviR. R. P, C. M. nerva. proq. P.

15. 16. antonia. [antonia, 2. 3.]

17. antonia, the daughter of M. Antonius, the triumvir, and Antonia. [antonia, 4.]

18. M. antonius, M. f. M. n., called "by the Greek writers Antyllus ("ApTuAAos), which is pro­bably only a corrupt form for Antonillus (young Antonius), was the elder of the two sons of the triumvir by his wife Fulyia. In b. c. 36, while he was still a child, he was betrothed to Julia, the daughter of Caesar Octavianus. After the battle Df Actium, when Antony despaired of success at Alexandria, he conferred upon his son Marcus the ;oga virilis (b. c. 30), that he might be able to take lis place in case of his death. He sent him with proposals of peace to Caesar, Avlrich were rejected; md on his death, shortly after, young Marcus was sxecuted by order of Caesar. (Dion Cass. xlviii. 54, i. 6, 8, 15 ; Suet. Aug. 17, 63; Plut. Ant. 71, 81,

17.)

19. julus antonius, M. f. M. n., the younger

on of the triumvir by Fulvia, was brought up by

is step-mother Octavia at Rome, and after his

ither's death (b. c. 30) received great marks of

ivour from Augustus, through the influence of

)ctavia. (Plut. Ant. 87; Dion Cass. li. 15.) Au-

ustus married him to Marcella, the daughter of

>ctavia by her first husband, C. Marcellus, con-

'.rred upon him the praetorship in b. c. 13, and

le consulship in b.c. 10. (Veil. Pat. ii. 100 ;

'ion Cass. liv. 26, 36 ; Suet. Claud. 2.) In con-

:quence of his adulterous intercourse with Julia,

.e daughter of Augustus, he was condemned to

;ath by the emperor in b. c. 2, but seems to have

iticipated his execution by a voluntary death.

e was also accused of aiming at the empire.

)ion Cass. Iv. 10 ; Senec. de Brevdt. Vit. 5 ; Tac.

nn. iv. 44, iii. 18 ; Plin. //. iY, vii. 46 ; Veil.

it. I. c.) Antonius was a poet, as we learn from

e of Horace's odes (iv. 2), which is addressed to

m.

20. antonia major, the elder daughter of . Antonius and Octavia. [antonia, No. 5.]

21. antonia minor, the younger daughter of . Antonius and Octavia. [antonia, No. 6.]

22. alexander, son of M. Antonius and Cleo-Ira. [alexander, p. 112, a.]

23. cleopatra, daughter of M. Antonius and 3opatra. [cleopatra.]

24. ptolemaeus philadelphus, son of M. itonius and Cleopatra, [ptolemaeus.]

25. L. antonius, son of No. 19 and Marcella, 1 grandson of the triumvir, was sent, after his her's death, into honourable exile at Massilia, ere he died in A. d. 25. (Tac. Ann. iv. 44.) ANTO'NIUS ('Az/raW). 1. Of argos, a eek poet, one of whose epigrams is still extant the Greek Anthology, (ix. 102; comp, Jacobs, AntlioL vol. xiii. p. 852.)

217

ANTONIUS.

2. Surnamed melissa (the Bee), a Greek monk, who is placed by some writers in the eighth and by others in the twelfth century of our era. lie must, however, at any rate have lived after the time of Theophylact, whom he mentions. He made a collection of so-called loci communes^ or sentences on virtues and vices, which is still extant. It resembles the Sermones of Sto-baeus, and consists of two books in 176 titles. The extracts are taken from the early Christian fathers. The work is printed at the end of the editions of Stobaeus published at Frankfort, 1581, and Geneva, 1609, fol. It is also contained in the Biblioth. Pair. vol. v. p. 878, &c., ed. Paris. (Fabr. Bibl. Gr. ix. p. 744, &c.; Cave, Script. Eccles. Hist. Lit, i. p. 666, ed. London.)

3. A Greek monk, and a disciple of Simeon Stylites, lived about a. d. 460. He wrote a life of his master Simeon, with whom he had lived on intimate terms. It was written in Greek, and L. Allatius (Diaf-r. de Script. Sim. p. 8) attests, that he saw a Greek MS. of it; but the only edition which has been published is a Latin translation in BolancVs Act. Sanctor. i. p.264. (Cave, Script. Eccles. Hist. Lit. ii. p. 145.) Vossius (De Hist. Led. p.231), who knew only the Latin trans­lation, was doubtful whether he should consider Antonius as a Latin or a Greek historian.

4. ST., sometimes surnamed Abbas, because he is believed to have been the founder of the monastic life among the early Christians, was born in a. d. 251, at Coma, near Heracleia, in Middle Egypt. His earliest years were spent in seclusion, and the Greek language, which then every person of education used to acquire, remain­ed unknown to him. He merely spoke and wrote the Egyptian language. At the age of nineteen, after having lost both his parents, he distributed his large property among his neighbours and the poor, and determined to live in solitary seclusion in the neighbourhood of his birthplace. The struggle before he fully overcame the desires of the flesh is said to have been immense ; but at length he succeeded, and the simple diet which he adopted, combined with manual labour, strength­ened his health so much, that he lived to the age of 105 years. In a. d. 285 he withdrew to the mountains of eastern Eg}rpt, where he took up his abode in a decayed castle or tower. Here he spent twenty years in solitude, and in constant struggles with the evil spirit. It was not till A. d. 305, that his friends prevailed upon him to return to the world. He now began his active and public career. A number of disciples gathered around him, and his preaching, together with the many miraculous cures he was said to perform on the sick, spread his fame all over Egypt. The number of persons anxious to learn from him and to follow his mode of life in­creased every year. Of such persons he made two settlements, one in the mountains of eastern Egypt, and another near the town of Arsinoe, and he him­self usually spent his time in one of these monas­teries, if we mav call them so. From the accounts

7 ./

of St. Athanasius in his life of Antonius, it is clear that most of the essential points of a monastic life were observed in these establishments. During the persecution of the Christians in the reign of the emperor Maximian, A. d. 311, Antonius, anxious to gain the palm of a martyr, went to Alexandria, but all his efforts and his opposition to the com­mands of the government were of no avail, and he

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