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216

ANTONIUS.

eluded a peace with Sext. Pompey, and Antony afterwards went to his provinces in the east. He entrusted the war against the Parthians to Venti-dius, who gained a complete victory over them both in this and the following year (38). Sosius, another of his generals, conquered Antigonus, who claimed the throne of Judaea in opposition to He­rod, and took Jerusalem (38). In 37 Antony crossed over to Italy; and a rupture, which had nearly taken place between him and Caesar, was averted by the mediation of Octavia. The trium­virate, which had terminated on the 31st of De­cember, 38, was now renewed for five years, which were to be reckoned from the day on which the former had ceased. After concluding this arrange­ment, Antony returned to the east. He shortly afterwards sent Octavia back to her brother, and surrendered himself entirely to the charms of Cleo­patra, on whom he conferred Coele-Syria, Phoenicia, and other provinces. From this time forward, Cleopatra appears as Antony's evil genius. He had collected a large army to invade the Parthian empire; but, unable to tear himself away from Cleopatra, he delayed his march till late in the year. The expedition was a failure ; he lost a great number of his troops, and returned to Syria covered with disgrace (36). Antony now made preparations to attack Artavasdes, the king of Armenia, who had deserted him in his war against the Parthians ; but he did not invade Armenia till the year 34. He obtained possession of the Arme­nian king, and carried him to Alexandria, where Le celebrated his triumph with extraordinary splen­dour. Antony now laid aside entirely the charac­ter of a Roman citizen, and assumed the pomp and ceremony of an eastern despot. His conduct, a,nd the unbounded influence which Cleopatra had acquired over him, alienated many of his friends and supporters; and Caesar, who had the wrongs of his sister Octavia to revenge, as well as ambition to stimulate him, thought that the time had now come for crushing Antony. The years 33 and 32 passed away in preparations on both sides ; and it was not till September in the next year (31) that the contest was decided in the sea-fight off Actium, in which Antony's fleet was completely defeated. His land forces surrendered to Caesar ; and he himself and Cleopatra, who had been pre­sent at the battle, fled to Alexandria. In the fol­lowing year (30), Caesar appeared before Alexan­dria. Antony's fleet and cavalry deserted to the conqueror; his infantry was defeated ; and upon a false report that Cleopatra had put an end to her life, he killed himself by falling on his sword. The death of Cleopatra soon followed ; and Caesar thus became the undisputed master of the Roman world. [augustus.] (Plutarch's Life of Antony; Orelli's Cnomasticon TulL; Drumann's GescMckte Roms., i. p. 64, &c ) The annexed coin represents the head of Antony, with the inscription, M. antonius imp. Cos. desig. iter. st. tert., which is surrounded

ANTONIUS.

with, a crown of ivy. On the reverse is a cista, a box used in the worship of Bacchus, surmounted by a female's head, and encompassed by two ser­pents. (Eckhel, vol. vi. p. 64.)

13, C. antonius M. f. M. n., the second son of M. Antonius Creticus [No. 9], and the brother of the triumvir, was Julius Caesar's legate in 49, and city praetor in 44, when his elder brother was consul, and his younger tribune of the plebs. In the same year, he received the province of Mace­donia, where, after an unsuccessful contest, he fell into the hands of M. Brutus in 43. Brutus kept him as a prisoner for some time, but put him to death at the beginning of 42, chiefly at the insti­gation of Hortensius, to revenge the murder of Cicero. (Orelli's Onomast.; Drumann's Gesch. Roms,, i. p. 523, &c.) The following coin of C. Antonius must have been struck after he had been appointed to the government of Macedonia with the title of proconsul. The female head is supposed to repre­sent the genius of Macedonia ; the cap on the head is the causia, which frequently appears on the Ma­cedonian coins. (Diet, of Ant, s.v. Causia; Eckhel, vol. vi. p. 4L)

14. L. antonius M. f. M. n., the younger brother of the preceding and of the triumvir, was tribune of the plebs in 44, and upon Caesar's death took an active part in supporting his brother's in­terests, especially by introducing an agrarian law to conciliate the people and Caesar's veteran troops. He subsequently accompanied his brother into Gaul, and obtained the consulship for 41, in which year he triumphed on account of some successes he had gained over the Alpine tribes. During his consulship a dispute arose between him and Caesar about the division of the lands among the veterans, which finally led to a war between them, commonly called the Perusinian war. Lucius engaged in this war chiefly at the instigation of Fulvia, his brother's wife, who had great political influence at Rome. At first, Lucius obtained possession of Rome during the absence of Caesar; but on the approach of the latter, he retired northwards to Perusia, where he was straightway closely besieged. Famine compelled him to surrender the town to Caesar in the following year (40). His life was spared, and he was shortly afterwards appointed by Caesar to the command of Iberia, from which time we hear no more of him.

L. Antonius took the surname of Pietas (Dion Cass. xlviii. 5), because he pretended to attack Caesar in order to support his brother's interests. It is true, that when he obtained possession of Rome in his consulship, he proposed the aboli­tion of the triumvirate ; but this does not prove, as some modern writers would have it, that he was opposed to his brother's interests. Cicero draws a frightful picture of Lucius' character. He calls him a gladiator and a robber, and heaps upon him every term of reproach and contempt. (Phil. iii. 12, v. 7, 11, xii. 8, &c.) Much of this is of course exaggeration. (Orelli's Onomast; Drumann's Gesch i. p. 527, &c.) The annexed coin of L. An-

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