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virtue, and chastity. Her portrait on the annexed coin supports the accounts which are given of her beauty. (Pint. Ant. 87; Dion Cass. Iviii. 11, lix. 3, Ix. 5; Suet. CaL i. 15, 23; Tac. Ann. iii. 3, 18, xi. 3 ; Val. Max. iv. 3. § 3 ; Eckhel, vi. p. 178, &c.)
7. The daughter of the emperor Claudius by Petina, was married by her father first to Pompeius Magnus, and afterwards to Faustus Sulla, Nero wished to marry her after the death of his wife Poppaea, A. d. 66 ; and on her refusing his proposal, he caused her to be put to death on a charge of treason. According to some accounts, she was privy to the conspiracy of Piso. (Suet. Claud. 27, Ner. 35 ; Tac. Ann. xii. 2, xiii. 23, xv. 53 ; Dion Cass. Ix. 5.)
ANTONIA GENS, patrician and plebeian. The patrician Antonii bear the cognomen Merenda [merenda] ; the plebeian Antonii bear no surname under the republic, with the exception of Q. Antonius, propraetor in Sardinia in the time of Sulla, who is called Balbus upon coins. (Eckhel, v. p. 140.) The plebeian Antonii are given under antonius. Antonius, the triumvir, pretended that his gens was descended from Anton, a son of Hercules. (Plat. Ant. 4, 36, 60.) We are told that he harnessed lions to his chariot to commemorate his descent from this hero (Plin. //. N. viii. 16. s. 21 ; comp. Cic. ad Alt. x. 13); and many of his coins bear a lion for the same reason. (Eckhel, vi. pp. 38, 44.)
ANTONINUS. 1. A Roman of high rank, and a contemporary and friend of Pliny the Younger, among whose letters there are three addressed to Antoninus. Pliny heaps the most extravagant praise upon his friend both for his personal character and his skill in composing Greek epigrams and iambics. (Plin. Epist. iv. 3, 18, v. 10.)
2. A new-Platonist, who lived early in the fourth century of our era, was a son of Eustathius and Sosipatra, and had a school at Canopus, near Alexandria in Egypt. He devoted himself wholly to those who sought his instructions, but he never expressed any opinion upon divine things, which he considered beyond man's comprehension. He and his disciples were strongly attached to the heathen religion ; but he had acuteness enough to see that its end was near at hand, and he predicted that after his death all the splendid temples of the gods would be changed into tombs. His moral conduct is described as truly exemplary. (Eunapius, Vit. Aedesii., p. 68, ed. Antw. 1568.) [L. S.]
Caesar, Antonius Augustus, Antonius Augustalis, and Antoninus Augustus. It is a very valuable itinerary of the whole Roman empire, in which both the principal and the cross-roads are described by a list of all the places and stations upon them, the distances from place to place being given in Roman miles.
We are informed by Aethicus, a Greek geographer whose CosmograpMa was translated by St. Jerome, that in the consulship of Julius Caesar and M. Antonius (b. c. 44), a general survey of the empire was undertaken., at the command of Caesar and by a decree of the senate, by three persons, who severally completed their labours in 30, 24, and 19, b. c., and that Augustus sanctioned the results by a decree of the senate. The probable inference from this statement, compared with the MS. titles of the Itinerary, is, that that work embodied the results of the survey mentioned by Aethicus. In fact, the circumstance of the Itinerary and the Cosmoc/raphia of Aethicus being-found in the same MS. has led some writers to suppose that it was Aethicus himself who reduced the survey into the form in which we have it. The time of Julius Caesar and Augustus, when the Roman empire had reached its extent, was that at which we should expect such a work to be undertaken ; and no one was more likely to undertake it than the great reformer of the Roman calendar. The honour of the work, therefore, seems to belong to Julius Caesar, who began it; to M. Antonius, who, from his position in the state, must have shared in its commencement and prosecution; and to Augustus, under whom it was completed. Nevertheless, it is highly probable that it received important additions and revision under one or both of the Antonines, who, in their labours to consolidate the empire, would not neglect such a work. The names included in it, moreover, prove that it was altered to suit the existing state of the empire down to the time of Diocletian (a. d. 285-305), after which we have no evidence of any alteration, for the passages in which the name " Constantino-polis" occurs are probably spurious. Whoevci may have been its author, we have abundant evidence that the work was an official one. In several passages the numbers are doubtful. The name; are put down without any specific rule as to th< case. It was first printed by H. Stephens, Paris (1512.) The best edition is that of Wesseling Amst. 1735, 4to. (The Preface to Wesseling1 edition of the Itinerary; The Article 'Antoninus the Itinerary of,' in the Penny Cyclopaedia.} [P. S.
ANTONINUS, M. AURE'LIUS. [M. At
ANTONINUS PIUS. The name of th: emperor in the early part of his life, at full lengtl was Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Ant\ ninus—a series of appellations derived from h paternal and maternal ancestors, from whom 1 inherited great wealth. The family of his fath< was originally from Nemausus (Nismes) in Tran alpine Gaul, and the most important members the stock are exhibited in the following table: