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On this page: Antiochus I – Antiochus Ii – Antiochus Iii

196

ANTIOCHUS.

tained in C. et T. Muller, Fragm. Histor. Graec. Paris, 1841, pp. 181—184.) [L. S.]

ANTIOCHUS I. ('Ai/rfoxos), king of syria, surnamed SOTER (scott?/)), was the son of Seleucus Nicator and a Persian lady, Apama. The mar­riage of his father with Apama was one of those marriages which Alexander celebrated at Susa in B. c. 325, when he gave Persian wives to his ge­nerals. This would fix the birth of Antiochus about b. c. 324. He was present with his father at the battle of Ipsus in b. c. 301, which secured for Seleucus the government of Asia. It is related of Antiochus, that he fell sick through love of Stratonice, the young wife of his father, and the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and that when his father learnt the cause of his illness through his physician Erasistratus, he 'resigned Stratonice to him, and gave him the government of Upper Asia with the title of king. On the murder of his father in Macedonia in b. c. 280, Antiochus suc­ceeded to the whole of his dominions, and prose­cuted his claims to the throne of Macedonia against Antigonus Gonatas, but eventually allowed the latter to retain possession of Macedonia on his marrying Phila, the daughter of Seleucus and Stratonice. The rest of Antiochus' reign was chiefly occupied in wars with the Gauls, who had invaded Asia Minor. By the help of his elephants he gained a victory over the Gauls, and received in consequence the surname of Soter (2wr7jp). He was afterwards defeated by Eumenes near Sardis, and was sub­sequently killed in a second battle with the Gauls (b. c. 261), after a reign of nineteen years. By his wife Stratonice Antiochus had three children: Antiochus Theos, who succeeded him; Apama, married to Magas; and Stratonice, married to Demetrius II. of Macedonia. (Appian, Syi\ 59-65; Justin, xvii. 2 : Plut. Demetr. 38, 39 ; Strab. xiii. p. 623 ; Pans, i. 7; Julian, Misopog. p. 348, a. b.; Lucian, Zeuzis, 8 ; Aelian, H. A. vi. 44 ; Plin. //. N. viii. 42.) Apollo is represented on the re­verse of the annexed coin. (Eckhel. iii. p. 215.)

COIN OF ANTIOCHUS I.

ANTIOCHUS II. ('Arrfoxos), king of syria, surnamed THEOS (®eos), a surname which he de­rived from the Milesians whom he delivered from their tyrant, Timarchus, succeeded his father in B. c. 261. Soon after his accession he became in­volved in war with Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, which lasted for many years and greatly weakened the Syrian kingdom. Taking advantage of this weakness, Arsaces was able to establish the Parthian empire in B. c. 250; and his example was shortly afterwards followed by Theodotus, the governor of Bactria, who revolted from Antio­chus and made Bactria an independent kingdom. The loss of these provinces induced Antiochus to sue for peace, which was granted (b. c. 250) on

ANTIOCHUS.

condition of his putting away his former wife Laodice and marrying Berenice, a daughter of Ptolemy. This connexion between Syria and Egypt is referred to in the book of Daniel (xi. 6), where by the king of the south we are to under­stand Egypt, and by the king of the north, Syria, On the death of Ptolemy two years afterwards Antiochus recalled Laodice x but she could not for­give the insult that had been shewn her, and, still mistrusting Antiochus, caused him to be murdered as well as Berenice and her son. Antiochus was killed in B. c. 246, after a reign of fifteen years. By Laodice he had four children, Seleucus Callini-cus, who succeeded him, Antiochus Hierax, a daughter, Stratonice, married to Mithridates, and another daughter married to Ariarathes. Phy-larchus related (Athen. x. p. 438), that Antiochus was much given to wine. (Appian, Syr. 65 ; Athen. ii. p. 45; Justin, xxvii. 1; Polyaen. viii. 50 ; Val. Max. ix. 14. § 1, extern.; Hieronym. ad Dan. c. 11.) On the reverse of the coin annexed, Hercules is represented with his club in his hand. (Eckhel, iii. p. 218.)

COIN OP ANTIOCHUS II.

ANTIOCHUS III. ('Awfoxos), king of syria,

surnamed the great (Meyas\ was the son of Seleucus Callinicus, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother Seleucus Ceraunus, b. c. 223, when he was only in his fifteenth year. His first cousin Achaeus, who might easily have assum­ed the royal power, was of great use to Antiochus at the commencement of his reign, and recovered for the Syrian monarchy all the provinces in Asia Minor, which Attains, king of Pergamus, had ap­propriated to himself. But Antiochus was not so fortunate in his eastern dominions. Molo and Alexander, two brothers, who had been appointed to the government of Media and Persis respectively, revolted and defeated the armies sent against them, They were, however, put down in a second cam­paign, conducted by Antiochus in person, who alsc added to his dominions the province of Mediz Atropatene. (b. c. 220.)

On his return from his eastern provinces, Antio­chus commenced war against Ptolemy Philopator king of Egypt, in order to obtain Coele-Syria Phoenicia, and Palestine, which he maintained be longed to the Syrian kingdom. At first he wa completely successful. In b. c. 218, he gained pos session of the chief towns of Phoenicia, but in thi following year (b. c.217), he was defeated in a grea battle fought at Raphia near Gaza, and conclude* in consequence a peace with Ptolemy, by which h ceded the provinces in dispute. He was the mor anxious to make peace with Ptolemy, as he wish ed to direct all his forces against Achaeus, wh had revolted in Asia Minor. In one campaign h deprived Achaeus of his conquests, and put him t death when he fell into his hands in b.c.

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