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After Pompey had deposed Antiochus Asiaticus, the last king of Syria, b. c. 65, he marched against Antiochus of Commagene, with whom he shortly afterwards concluded a peace. (b. c. 64.) Pompey added to his dominions Seleuceia and the conquests he had made in Mesopotamia. (Appian, Mithr. 106, 114.) When Cicero was governor of Cilicia (b. c. 51), he received from Antiochus intelligence of the movements of the Parthians. (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 1, 3, 4.) In the civil war between Caesar and Pompey (b. c. 49), Antiochus assisted the latter with troops. (Caesar, B. C. iii. 5 ; Appian, B. C. ii. 49.) In b. c. 38, Ventidius, the legate of M. Antonius, after conquering1 the Parthians, marched against Antiochus, attracted by the great treasures which this king possessed ; and Antonius, arriving at the army just as the war was commencing, took it into his own hands, and laid siege to Samosata. He was, however, unable to take the place, and was glad to retire after making peace with Antiochus. (Dion Cass. xlix. 20-22 ; Plut. Ant. 34.) A daughter of Antiochus married Orodes, king of Parthia. (Dion Cass. xlix. 23.) We do not know the exact period of the death of Antiochus, but he must have died before b. c. 31, as his successor Mithridates is mentioned as king of Commagene in that year. (Plut. Ant. 61.)
ANTIOCHUS II. ('Awfoxos), king of commagene, succeeded Mithridates L, and was summoned to Rome by Augustus and executed in b. c. 29, because he had caused the assassination of an ambassador, whom his brother had sent to Rome. Augustus gave the kingdom to Mithridates II., who was then a boy, because his father had been murdered by the king. (Dion Cass. Iii. 43, liv. 9.)
ANTIOCHUS III. ('AvTfoxos), king of commagene, seems to have succeeded Mithridates II. We know nothing more of him than that he died in A. d. 17. (Tac. Ann. ii. 42.) Upon his death, Commagene became a Roman province (Tac. Ann. ii. 56), and remained so till a. d. 38, when Antiochus Epiphanes was appointed king by Caligula.
ANTIOCHUS IV. ('avti'oxos), king of commagene, surnamed EPIPHANES ('ett^cm/t^), was apparently a son of Antiochus III., and received his paternal dominion from Caligula in a. d. 38, with a part of Cilicia bordering on the sea-coast in addition. Caligula also gave him the whole amount of the revenues of Commagene during the twenty years that it had been a Roman province. (Dion Cass. lix. 8; Suet. Cal. 16.) He lived on most intimate terms with Caligula, and he and Herod Agrippa are spoken of as the instructors of the emperor in the art of tyranny. (Dion Cass. lix. 24.) This friendship, however, was not of very long continuance, for he was subsequently deposed by Caligula and did not obtain his kingdom again till the accession of Claudius in a. d. 41. (Dion Cass. Ix. 8.) In a. d. 43 his son, also called Antiochus Epiphanes, was betrothed to Drusilla, the daughter of Agrippa. (Joseph. Ant. xix. 9. § 1.) In a. d. 53 Antiochus put down an insurrection of some barbarous tribes in Cilicia, called Clitae. (T&c^Ann. xii. 55.) In A. d. 55 he received orders from Nero to levy troops to make war against the Parthians, and in the year 59 he served under Corbulo against Tiri-dates, 'brother of the Parthian king Vologeses. (.xiii.
7, 37.) In consequence of his services in this war, he obtained in the year 61 part of Armenia, (xiv. 26.) He espoused the side of Vespasian, when he was proclaimed emperor in A. d. 70 ; and he is then spoken of as the richest of the tributary kings. (Tac. Hist. ii. 81.) In the same year he sent forces, commanded by his son Antiochus, to assist Titus in the siege of Jerusalem. (Joseph. Bell. Jud. v. 11. § 3; Tac. Hist. v. 1.) Two years afterwards, a. d. 72, he was accused by Paetus, the governor of Syria, of conspiring with the Parthians against the Romans, and was in consequence deprived of his kingdom, after a reign of thirty-four years from his first appointment by Caligula. He first retired to Lacedaemon, and then to Rome, where he passed the remainder of his life with his sons Antiochus and Callinicus, and was treated with great respect. (Joseph. B. J. vii. 7.) There are several coins of this king extant, from which we learn, that the name of his wife was lotape. In the one annexed he is called BA2IAET3 MEFA3 ANTIOXOS. On the reverse a scorpion is represented, surrounded with the foliage of the laurel, and inscribed KOMMAFHNnN. (Eckhel, iii. p. 255, &c.; comp. Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 343, &c.)
ANTIOCHUS ('Am'oxos), an epigrammatic poet, one of whose epigrams is extant in the Greek Anthology, (xi. 412.) [L. S.]
ANTIOCHUS HIERAX ('Avrloxos 'Iepa£), so called from his grasping and ambitious character, was the younger son of Antiochus II., king oj Syria. On the death of his father in b. c. 246. Antiochus waged war upon his brother Seleucus Callinicus, in order to obtain Asia Minor for himself as an independent kingdom. This war las tec for many years, but Antiochus was at length en tirely defeated, chiefly through the efforts of Atta lus, king of Pergamus, who drove him out of Asi; Minor. Antiochus subsequently fled to Egypt where he was killed by robbers in b. c. 227. H married a daughter of Zielas, king of Bithynk (Justin. xxvii. 2, 3 ; Polyaen. iv. 17; Plut. Moi p. 489, a.; Euseb. Chron. Arm. pp. 346, 347 Clinton, F. H. iii. pp. 311, 312, 413.) Apollo i represented on the reverse of the annexed coii (Eckhel, iii. p. 219.)