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This peace, however, did not last more than a year. Ptolemy was the first to break it, under pretence that Antigonus had not restored to liberty the Greek cities in Asia Minor, and accordingly sent a fleet to Cilicia to dislodge the garrisons of Antigonus from the maritime towns. (b. c. 310.) Ptolemy was at first successful, but was soon deprived of all he had gained by the conquests of Demetrius (Poliorcetes), the son of Antigonus. Meanwhile, however, the whole of Greece was in the power of Cassander, and Demetrius was therefore sent with a large fleet to effect a diversion in his father's favour. Demetrius met with little opposition ; he took possession of Athens in b. c. 307, where he was received with the most extravagant flatteiy. He also obtained possession of Megara, and would probably have become master of the whole of Greece, if he had not been recalled by his father to oppose Ptolemy, who had gained the island of Cyprus. The fleet of Demetrius met that of Ptolemy off the city of Salamis in Cyprus, and a battle ensued, which is one of the most memorable of the naval engagements of antiquity. Ptolemy was entirely defeated (b. c. 306), and Antigonus assumed in consequence the title of king, and the diadem, the symbol of royal power in Persia. He also conferred the same title upon Demetrius, between whom and his father the most cordial friendship and unanimity always prevailed. The example of Antigonus was followed by Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Seleucus, who are from this time designated as kings. The city of Antigoneia on the Orontes in Syria was founded by Antigonus in the preceding year (b. c. 307).
Antigonus thought that the time had now come for crushing Ptolemy. He accordingly invaded Egypt with a large force, but his invasion was as unsuccessful as Cassander's had been : he was obliged to retire with great loss. (b. c. 306.) He next sent Demetrius to besiege Rhodes, which had refused to assist him against Ptolemy, and had hitherto remained neutral, Although Demetrius made the most extraordinary efforts to reduce the place, he was completely baffled by the energy and perseverance of the besieged ; and was therefore glad, at the end of a year's siege, to make peace with the Rhodians on terms very favourable to the latter. (b. c. 304.) While Demetrius was engaged against Rhodes, Cassander had recovered his former power in Greece, and this was one reason that made Antigonus anxious that his son should make peace with the Rhodians. Demetrius crossed over into Greece, and after gaining possession of the principal cities without much difficulty, collected an assembly of deputies at Corinth (b. c. 303), which conferred upon him the same title that had formerly been bestowed upon Philip and Alexander. He now prepared to march northwards against Cassander, who, alarmed at his dangerous position, sent proposals of peace to Antigonus. The proud answer was, " Cassander must yield to the pleasure of Antigonus." But Cassander had not sunk so low as this: he sent ambassadors to Seleucus and Ptolemy for assistance, and induced Lysimachus to invade Asia Minor in order to make an immediate diversion in his favour. Antigonus proceeded in person to oppose Lysima-
chus, and endea\Toured to force him to an engagement before the arrival of Seleucus from upper Asia. But in this he could not succeed, and the campaign accordingly passed away without a battle. (b. c. 302.) During the winter, Seleucus joined Lysimachus, and Demetrius came from Greece to the assistance of his father. The decisive battle took place in the following year (b. c. 301), near Ipsus in Phrygia. Antigonus fell in the battle, in the eighty-first year of his age, and his army was completely defeated. Demetrius escaped, but was unable to restore the fortunes of his house. [demetrius.] The dominions of Antigonus were divided between the conquerors : Lysimachus obtained the greater part of Asia Minor, and Seleucus the countries between the coast of Syria and the Euphrates, together with a part of Phrygia and Cappadocia. (Diod. lib. yviii.-xx. ; Pint. Eumenes and Demetrius; Droy^en, Gescliiclite der Naclifolger Alexanders; Thirl wall's Greece^ vol. vii.)
The head on the following coin of Antigonus. Frohlich supposes to be Neptune's, but Eckhel thinks that it represents Dionysus, and that the coin was struck by Antigonus after his naval victory off Cyprus, in order to shew that he should subdue all his enemies, as Dionysus had conquered his in India. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 118.)
ANTIGONUS ('Ai/Tfywos), of carystus, J supposed by some to have lived in the reign c Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, and by others in that c Euergetes. Respecting his life nothing is knowi but we possess by him a work called lorropi-l irapa,§6j-<i>j/ ffwayvyr} (Hixtoriae Mirabiles), whic consists for the most part of extracts from th "" Auscultationes " attributed to Aristotle, and froi similar works of Callimachus, Timaeus, and othe: which are now lost. It is only the circumstam that he has thus preserved extracts from other an better works, that gives any value to this compil; tion of strange stories, which is evidently mac without skill or judgment. It was first editei together with Antoninus Liberalis, by Xylande Basel, 1568, 8vo. The best editions are those Meursius, Lugd. Bat. 1619, 4to., and of J. Bee' maim. Leipzig, 1791, 4to. Antigonus also wro an epic poem entitled 'AimVarpos, of which tv lines are preserved in Athenaeus. (iii. p. 82.) T' Anthologia Graeca (ix. 406) contains an epigra of Antigonus. [L. S.]
ANTIGONUS ('AvTiyovos\ of cumae, Asia Minor, a Greek writer on agriculture, who referred to by Pliny (Elench. libb. viii. xiv. 3 xvii.), Varro (De Re Rust. i. 1), and Columella 1), but whose age is unknown. [L. S.]