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same woman without knowing that they were rivals, and by an unhappy mistake Manuel was slain by the hand of his brother. Their father, Michael, died of grief, and the emperor, exasperat­ ed against his grandson, showed some intention to exclude him from the throne. Thus a dreadful civil war, or rather three wars, arose between the emperor and his grandson, which lasted from 1321 till 1328, when at last the emperor was obliged to abdicate in favour of the latter. Andronicus the elder retired to a convent at Drama in Thessaly, where he lived as monk under the name of Anto- aius. He died in 1332, and his body was buried in Constantinople. (Pachymeres, Andronicus Pa- J.aeologus ; Nicephorus Gregoras, lib. vi.—x.; Canta- ;uzenus, i. 1, &c.) [W. P.]

ANDRONICUS III. PALAEO'LOGUS, the Younger (*Av$poviKos TIa\ai6\oyos}, emperor of constantinople, was born in 1296, and suc­ceeded his grandfather in 1328, as has been re-ated in the preceding .article. He was unsuc-:essful in his wars with the Turks; he lost the >attle of Philocrene against sultan Urkhan and lis brother Ala-ed-din, who had just organized he body of the Jannisaries. by whom Thrace was avaged as far as the Haemus, Equally unsuccess-ul against the Catalans in Greece, he was more ortunate against the Bulgarians, the Tartars of Ciptschak, and the Servians.

He was twice married, first to Agnes or Irene, he daughter of Henry, duke of Brunswick, and fter her death to Anna, countess of Savoy, by /horn he had two sons, John and Emanuel. At is death, in 1341, he left them under the uardianship of John Cantacuzenus, who soon be­an to reign in his own name. (Nicephorus rregoras, lib. ix.—xi.; Cantacuzenus, i. c. 58, :c., ii. c. 1—40 ; Phranzes, i. c. 10—13 ; comp. 'achymeres, Andronicus Palaeologus.} [W. P.] ANDRONI'CUS CYRRHESTES (so called •om his native place, Cyrrha), was the builder :" the octagonal tower at Athens, vulgarly called the tower of the winds." Vitruvius (i. 6. § 4), 'ter stating, that some make the number of ie winds to be four, but that those who have ramined the subject more carefully distinguished ght, adds, " Especially Andronicus Cyrrhestes, ho also set up at Athens, as a representation ereof (exemplum\ an octagonal tower of marble, id on the several sides of the octagon he made ulptured images of the several winds, each image 3king towards the wind it represented," (that the figure of the north wind was sculptured on e north side of the building, and so with the st), "and above this tower he set up a marble lar (metam}* and on the top he placed a Triton bronze, holding out a wand in his right hand: d this figure was so contrived as to be driven ind by the wind, and always to stand oppo-e the blowing wind, and to hold the wand an index above the image of that wind." lito calls the building " horologium." (7?. R. 5. § 17, Schn.) It formed a measure of time two ways. On the outer wralls were lines which th gnomons above them, formed a series of i-dials, and in the building was a clepsydra, )plied from the spring called Clepsydra, on : north-west of the Acropolis. The building, inh still stands, has been described by Stuart I others. The plain walls are surmounted by entablature, on the frieze of which are the


figures of the winds in bas-relief. The entranceH, of which there are two, on the north-east and the north-west, have distyle porticoes of the Corinthian order. Within, the remains of the clepsydra are still visible, as are the dial lines on the outer walls.

The date of the building is uncertain, but the style of the sculpture and architecture is thought to belong to the period after Alexander the Great. The clepsydra also was probably of that improved kind which was invented by Ctesibius, about 135 B. c. (Diet, of Ant. s. v. Horologium.') Miiller places Andronicus at 100 b. c. (Attika, in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclop. vi. p. 233.)

From the words of Vitruvius it seems probable that Andronicus was an astronomer. The mecha­ nical arrangements of his "horologium" were of course his work, but whether he was properly the architect of the building we have nothing to deter­ mine, except the absence of any statement to the contrary. [P. S.]

ANDRONICUS, LI'VIUS, the earliest Roman poet, as far as poetical literature is concerned; for whatever popular poetry there may have existed at Rome, its poetical literature begins with this writer. (Quintil. x. 2. § 7.) He was a Greek and probably a native of Tarentxim, and was made prisoner by the Romans during their wars in southern Italy. He then became the slave of M.


Livius Salinator, perhaps the same who was consul in b. c. 219, and again in b. c. 207. Andronicus instructed the children of his master, but was after­wards restored to freedom, and received from his patron the Roman name Livius. (Hieron. in Euseb. Chron. ad 01. 148.) During his stay at Rome, Andronicus made himself a perfect master of the Latin language, and appears to have exerted him­self chiefly in creating a taste for regular dramatic representations. His first drama was acted in b. c. 240, in the consulship of C. Claudius and M. Tudi-tanus (Cic. Brut.. 18, 'comp. Tusc. Quaest. i. 1, de Senect. 14 ; Liv. vii. 2; Gellius, xvii. 21) ; but whether it was a tragedy or a comedy is uncertain. That he wrote comedies as well as tragedies, is attested beyond all doubt. (Diomedes, iii. p. 486; Flavius Vopisc. Numerian, 13 ; the author of the work de Comoed. et Trag.} The number of his dramas was considerable, and we still possess the titles and fragments of at least fourteen. The sub­jects of them were all Greek, and they were little more than translations or imitations of Greek dra­mas. (Suet, de Illustr. Grammat. 1; Diomed. I. c.) Andronicus is said to have died in b c. 221, and cannot have lived beyond b. c. 214. (Osann, Anal. Grit. p. 28.) As to the poetical merit of these compositions we are unable to form an accurate idea, since the extant fragments are few and short. The language in them appears yet in a rude and undeveloped form, but it has nevertheless a solid basis for further development. Cicero (Brut. 18) says, that in his time they were no longer worth reading, and that the GOO mules in the Clytem-nestra and the 3000 craters in the Equus Trojanus could not afford any pleasure upon the stage, (ad Famil. vii. 1.) In the time of Horace, the poems of Andronicus were read and explained in schools ; and Horace, although not an admirer of early Roman poetry, says, that he should not like to see the works of Andronicus destroyed. (Horat. Epist. ii. 1. 69.)

Besides his dramas, Livius Andronicus wrote ;

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