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ANDRONICUS I. COMNE'NUS fAi/Spo-vikos Kofjivrjvos^ emperor of constantinople, son of Isaac, grandson of Alexis T. and first-cousin of the emperor Manuel Comnenus, was born in the beginning of the twelfth century after Christ. The life of this highly gifted man, who deserves the name of the Byzantine Alcibiades, presents a series of adventures of so extraordinary a description, as to appear more like a romance than a history. Nature had lavished upon him her choicest gifts. His manly beauty was unparalleled, and the vigour of his body was animated by an enterprising mind and an undaunted spirit. Endowed with great capacities, he received a careful education, and the persuasive power of his eloquence was so great, that he was equally dangerous to kings and queens : three royal princesses were his concubines. For love and war were his predominant passions, but they both degenerated into luxury and cruelty. In every deed or mischief, says Gibbon (eh. 48), he had a heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute.
In 1141 he was made prisoner by the Turks-
Seljuks, and remained during a year in their captivity. After being released, he received the command in Cilicia, and he went there accompanied by Eudoxia Comnena, the niece of the emperor Manuel, who lived on a similar footing with her sister Theodora, At the close of this war he received the government of Naissus, Braniseba, and Castoria ; but the emperor soon afterwards ordered him to be imprisoned in Constantinople. He escaped from captivity after having been confined twelve years, and fled to Jaroslav, grand duke of Russia, and at Kiev obtained the pardon of his offended sovereign. He contrived an alliance between Manuel and Jaroslav against Hungary, and at the head of a Russian army distinguished himself in the siege of Semlin. Still suspected by Manuel, he was again sent to Cilicia. He staid some time at Antioch, and there seduced Philippa, the daughter of Raymond of Poitou, prince of Antioch, and the sister-in-law of the emperor Manuel, who had married her sister Maria. To escape the resentment of the emperor, he fled to Jerusalem, and thence eloped with Theodora, the widow of Baldwin III. king of Jerusalem, a Com-nenian princess who was renowned for her beauty. They first took refuge at the court of Nur-ed-din, sultan of Damascus ; thence they went to Baghdad and Persia, and at length settled among the Turks. He then proceeded to make war upon the emperor of Constantinople, and invaded the province of Trebizond, but the governor of this town succeeded in taking queen Theodora and the two children she had borne to Andronicus, and sent them to Constantinople. To regain them Andronicus implored the mercy of his sovereign, and after prostrating himself laden with chains to the foot of the emperor's throne, he retired to Oenoe, now Unieh, a town on the Black Sea in the present eyalet of Trebizond. There he lived quietly till the death of the emperor Manuel in 1180.
Manuel was succeeded by Alexis II., whom Andronicus put to death in the month of October 1183, and thereupon he ascended the throne. [alexis II.] Agnes or Anna, the widow oJ Alexis, and daughter of Louis VII. king of France, a child of eleven years, was compelled to marry Andromcus, who was then advanced in years His reign was short. He was hated by the nobles numbers of whom he put to death, but was belovec by the people. His administration was wise ; am he remedied several abuses in civil and ecclesias tical matters. William II., the Good, king o Sicity, whom the fugitive Greek nobles had per suaded to invade Greece, was compelled b^ Andronicus to desist from his attack on Constant] nople and to withdraw to his country, after he ha< destroyed Thessalonica. Thus Andronicus though himself quite sure on the throne, when the im prudence of his lieutenant, the superstition Hagiochristophorites, suddenly caused a dreadfi rebellion. This officer resolved to put to death Isaa Angelus, a noble but not a dangerous man ; th people of Constantinople, however, moved to pit; took arms for the rescue of the victim, and Isaac w; proclaimed emperor. Andronicus was seized, an Isaac abandoned him to the revenge of his most in placable enemies. After having been carried throug the streets of the city, he was hanged by the feet b tween the statues of a sow and a wolf, and in th; position was put to death by the mob. (12th September, 1185.) (Nicetas, Manud Comnenu
1. 1, iii. iv. 1—5 ; Alexis Manuelis Comn. Fil.
2. 9, &c.; Andronious Comnenus; Guilielmus T rensis, xxi. 13.) [W. P.]
ANDRONICUS II. PALAEO'LOGUS, t Elder (AvSpoviicos Ha\ai6\oyos\ emperor of Co stantinople, the eldest son of the emper Michael Palaeologus, was born a. d. 1260. j the age of fifteen he was associated with 1 father in the government, and he ascended t throne in 1283. Michael had consented to union between the Greek and Latin churches the second general council at Lyon, but Andronic was opposed to this measure, and was at leng excommunicated by pope Clement V. in 13( During this the Greek armies were beaten by C man, the founder of the Turkish empire, w gradually conquered all the Byzantine possessic in Asia. In this extremity Andronicus engag the army and the fleet of the Catalans, anumerc band of warlike adventurers, to assist him agai] the Turks. Roger de Flor, or de Floria, the s of a German noble at the court of the empe Frederic II., the commander of these adventure accordingly went to Constantinople with a i merous fleet and an army of 8000 men. 1 emperor appointed him admiral of the empire, n conferred upon him the title of Caesar. T famous captain defeated the Turks in several i gagements, but his troops ravaged the country their allies with as much rapacity as that of tl" common, enemies, and in order to get rid of the the emperor caused Roger to be assassinated Adrianople. But the Catalans now turned tl arms against the Greeks, and after having de^\ tated Thrace and Macedonia, they retired to Peloponnesus, Avhere they conquered several < tricts in which they maintained themselves.