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think highly of them, and that they were more of a rhetorical than an historical character. He enjoyed some reputation as a teacher of rhetoric and as an orator, both in the assembly of the people and in the courts of justice (Dionys. Hal. I. c. ; Pans. I. c.), and also wrote speeches for others, such as the one which Euthias delivered against Phryne. (Athen. xiii. p. 591; comp. Harpocr. s. v. ~Ev9ias.)
There have been critics, such as Casaubon (ad Dioy. Laert. ii. 3), who thought that the rhetori cian and the historian Anaximenes were two dis tinct persons ; but their identity has been proved by very satisfactory arguments. What renders him a person of the highest importance in the his tory of Greek literature, is the following fact, which has been firmly established by the critical investigations of our own age. He is the only rhetorician previous to the time of Aristotle whose scientific treatise on rhetoric is now extant. This is the so-called 'P^ropi/o} irpos 'AXeJ-avSpov, which is usually printed among the works of Aristotle, to whom, however, it cannot belong, as all critics agree. The opinion that it is a work of Anaxi- menes was first expressed by P. Victorius in his preface to Aristotle's Rhetoric, and has been firmly established as a fact by Spengel in his ^vvayooyrj rexi/co*/, "Sive Artium Scriptores ab initiis usque ad editos Aristotelis de rhetorica libros," Stuttgard, 1828, p. 182. &c. (Comp. Quintil. iii. 4. § 9 with the notes of Gesner and Spalding.) This Rhetoric is preceded by a letter which is manifestly of later origin, and was probably intended as an introduc tion to the study of the Rhetoric of Aristotle. The work itself is much interpolated, but it is at any rate clear that Anaximenes extended his subject beyond the limits adopted by his predeces sors, with whose works he was well acquainted. He divides eloquence into forensic and deliberative, but also suggests that a third kind, the epideictic, should be separated from them. As regards the plan and construction of the work, it is evident that its author was not a philosopher : the whole is a series of practical suggestions how this or that subject should be treated under various circum stances, as far as argumentation, expression, and the arrangement of the parts of a speech are con cerned. (Vossius, de Histor. Grace, p. 92, &c., ed. Westermann; Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Orat. Grace. p. 86 ; Westermann, Gescli. der Griecli. Beredtsam- keit, § 69.) [L. S.]
ANAXIPPUS ('Am^TrTros), an Athenian comic poet of the new comedy, was contemporary with Antigonus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, and flourish ed about b. c. 303. (Suidas, s. v.) We have the titles of four of his plays, and perhaps of one more. (Meineke, i. pp. 469-70.) [P. S.]
ANAXIS (''Averts), a Boeotian, wrote a history of Greece, which was carried down to b. c. 360, the year before the accession of Philip to the kingdom of Macedonia. (Diod. xv. 95.)
ANCAEUS ('A7/ca?os). 1. A son of the Ar-jadian Lycurgus and Creophile or Eurynome, and ?ather of Agapenor. (Apollod. i. 8. § 2, iii. 9. $2, 10. § 8 ; Hygin. Fab. 173 ; Horn. II ii. 609.) He was one of the Argonauts and partook in the Ualydonian. hurit^ in which he was killed by the
boar. (Apollod. i. 9. §§ 16 and 23; comp. Pans. viii. 5. § 2, 45. § 2; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 894 ; Ov. Met. viii. 400.)
2. A son of Poseidon and Astypalaea or Alta, king of the Leleges in Samos, and husband of Samia, the daughter of the river-god Maeander, by whom he became the father of Perilaus, Enodos, Samos, Alitherses, and Parthenope. (Pans. vii. 4. § 2 ; Callim. Hymn, in Del. 50.) This hero seems to have been confounded by some mythographers with Ancaeus, the son of Lycurgus ; for, according to Hyginus (Fab. 14), Ancaeus, the son of Poseidon, was one of the Argonauts, but not the other ; and Apollonius Rhodius (ii. 867, &c.) relates,, that after the death of Tiphys, Ancaeus, the son of Poseidon, became the helmsman of the ship Argo, which is just what Apollodorus relates of An-caens, the son of Lycurgus. Lycophron (449), moreover, in speaking of the death of the son of Lycurgus by the Calydonian boar, mentions a proverb, which, according to the Scholiast on Apollonius (i. 185), originated with Ancaeus, the son of Poseidon. The story of the proverb runs thus • Ancaeus was fond of agricultural occupations, and planted many vines. A seer said to him that he would not live to taste the wine of his vine}rard. When Ancaeus afterwards was on the point of putting a cup of wine, the growth of his own vineyard, to his mouth, he scorned the seer, who, however, answered, TroAAa juera|u kv\ikos re kol
X^Aewy dicpQW) " There is many a slip between the cup and the lip." At the same instant a tumult arose, and Ancaeus was informed that a wild boar was near. He put down his cup, went out against the animal, and was killed by it. Hence this Greek phrase was used as a proverb, to indicate any unforeseen occurrence by which a man's plans might be thwarted. (See Thirlwall in PJiilolog. Museum, vol. i. p. 106, &c.) A third Ancaeus occurs in //. xxiii. 635. [L. S.]
2. Tribune of the plebs in the consulship of Caesar and Bibulus, b. c. 59. He took an active part in opposing the agrarian law of Caesar, and in consequence of his services to the aristocratical party obtained the praetorship in b. c. 56. He succeeded L. Piso in the province of Macedonia in the following year. (Cic. pro Sest. 53, in Pison. 36 ; Schol. Bob. pro Sest. p. 304, in Vatin. p. 317, ed. Orelli.) One of Cicero's letters is written to him (ad Fam. xiii. 40).
ANCHARIUS PRISCUS. [Pmscus.]
ANCHIALE ('A7X!aA7?), a daughter of Ja-petus and mother of Cydnus, who was believed to have founded the town of Anchiale in Cilicia. (Steph. Byz. s. v.} Another personage of this name occurs in Apollon. Rhod. i. 11 30. [L. S.]
ANCHIALUS CA7xtaAos). Three mythical personages of this name occur in Horn. Od. i. 180, viii. 112; 11 v. 6<L [L. S.]
ANCHl'ALUSrMICHAEL f A7x^Aos), patriarch of Constantinople from 1167 to 1185 A. d., was a warm opponent of the union of the Greek and Roman churches, and an eminent Aristotelian