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union and separation, however, were made in such a manner, that each thing contains in itself parts of other things or heterogeneous elements, and is what it is, only on account of the preponderance of certain homogeneous parts which constitute its character. The i/ous, which thus regulated and formed the material world, is itself also cognoscent, and consequently the principle of all cognition: it alone can see truth and the essence of things, while our senses are imperfect and often lead us into error. Anaxagoras explained his dualistic system in a work which is now lost, and we know it only from such fragments as are quoted from it by later writers, as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, Cicero, and others. For a more detailed account see Hitter, Gesch. d. lonisch. Philos. p. 203, &c.; Brandis, RJiein. Mus. i. p. 117, &c., Handb, der GescJi. der Philos. i. p. 232, &c.; J. T. Hemsen, Anaxagoras Glazomenius, sive de Vita eius atque Philosophia, Getting. ]821,8vo.; Breier, Die Philosophic des Anaxagoras vo?i Klazo- inen'd nacli Aristoteles, Berlin, 1840. The frag ments of Anaxagoras have been collected by Schaubach: Anaccagorae Fragmenta collec/it, <^c., Leipzig, 1827, 8vo., and much better by Schorn, Anaocagorae Fragmenta dispos. et illustr.^ Bonn, 1829, 8vo. [L. S.]
ANAXAGORAS ('Am^opas), of Aegina, a sculptor, flourished about b. c. 480, and executed the statue of Jupiter in bronze set up at Olympia by the states which had united in repelling the in vasion of Xerxes. (Paus. v. 23. § 2.) He is sup posed to be the same person as the sculptor men tioned in an epigram by Anacreon (Anthol. Graec. i. p. 55, No. 6, Jacobs), but not the same as the writer on scene-painting mentioned by Vitruvius. [agatharchus.] [P. S.]
ANAXANDER ('AvdfcvSpos), king of Sparta, 12th of the Agids, son of Eurycrates, is named by Pausanias. as commanding against Aristomenes, and to the end of the second Messenian war, b. c. 668 ; but probably on mere conjecture from the statement of Tyrtaeus (given by Strabo, viii. p. 362), that the grandfathers fought in the first, the grandsons in the second. (Paus. iii. 3, 14. § 4, iv. 15. § 1, 16. § 5, 22. § 3 ; Pint. Apophth. Lac.) [A. H. C.]
ANAXANDRA ('Ava%ti>8pd) and her sister Lathria, twin daughters of Thersander, Heraclide king of Cleonae, are said to have been married to the twin-born kings of Sparta, Eurysthenes and Procles; Anaxandra, it would seem, to Procles. An altar sacred to them remained in the time of Pausanias. (iii. 16. § 5 ) [A. H. C.j
ANAXANDRA, the daughter of the painter Nealces, was herself a painter about b. c. 228. (Didvmus, ap. Clem. Aleoo. Strom. p. 523, b., SylbO [P. S.]
ANAXANDRIDES ('Ava^avdpl^s). 1. Son of Theopompus, the 9th Eurypontid king of Sparta; himself never reigned, but by the accession of Leotychides became from the seventh generation the father of the kings of Sparta of that branch. (See for his descendants in the interval Clinton's Fasti) ii. p. 204, and Herod, viii. 131.)
2. King of Sparta, 15th of the Agids, son of Leon, reigned from about 560 to 520 b, c. At the time when Croesus sent his embassy to form alliance with " the mightiest of the Greeks," i. e. about 554, the war with Tegea, which in the late reigns went against them, had now been decided
in the Spartans' favour, under Anaxandrides and Ariston. Under them, too, was mainly carried on the suppression of the tyrannies, and with it the establishment of the Spartan hegemony. Hav ing a barren wife whom he would not divorce, the ephors, we are told, made him take with her a second. By her he had Cleomenes; and after this, by his first wife Dorieus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus. (Herod, i. 65-69, v. 39-41; Paus. iii. 3.) Several sayings are ascribed to him in Plut. Apophth. Lac. (where the old reading is Alexandridas). With the reign of Anaxandrides and Ariston commences the period of certain dates, the chronology of theii* predecessors "being doubtful and the accounts in many ways suspicious ; the only certain point be ing the coincidence of Polydorus and Theopompus with the first Messenian war, which itself cannot be fixed with certainty. (See for all this period Clinton's Fasti, i. app. 2 and 6, ii. p. 205, and Miiller's Dorians, bk. i. c. 7.) [A. II. C.]
ANAXANDRIDES ('Ava£w8pi8'ns), an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy, was the son of Anaxander, a native of Cameirus in Rhodes. He began to exhibit comedies in b. c. 376 (Mann. Par. Ep. 34), and 29 years later he was present, and probably exhibited, at the Olympic games celebrated by Philip at Dium. Aristotle held him in high esteem. (Rhet. iii. 10—12; Eth. Eud. vi. 10 ; Nicom. vii. 10.) He is said to have been the first poet who made love intrigues a prominent part of comedy. He gained ten prizes, the whole number of his comedies being sixty-five. Though he is said to have destroyed several of his plays in anger at their rejection, we still have the titles of thirty-three.
Anaxandrides was also a dithyrambic poet, but we have no remains of his dithyrambs. (Suidas, s.v.; Athen. ix. p. 374; Meineke ; Bode.) [P. S.]
ANAXARCHUS (3Am£dpxos\ a philosopher of Abdera, of the school of Democritus, flourished about 340 b. c. and onwards. (Diog. Laert. ix. 58, p. 667, Steph.) He accompanied Alexander into Asia, and gained his favour by flattery and wit. From the easiness of his temper and his love of pleasure he obtained the appellation of ev^ai^oviKos. When Alexander had killed Cleitus,-Anaxarchus consoled him with the maxim "a king can do no wrong." After the death of Alexander, Anaxarchus was thrown by shipwreck into the power of Nicocreon, king of Cyprus, to whom he had given mortal offence, and who had him pounded to death in a stone mortar. The philosopher endured his sufferings with the utmost fortitude. Cicero (Tusc. ii. 21, de Nat. Deor. iii. 33) is the earliest authority for this tale. Of the philosophy of Anaxarchus we know nothing. Some writers understand his title cvScufAoviKos as meaning, that he was the teacher of a philosophy which made the end of life to be evSaipovia, and they made him the founder of a sect called fv^aL^ovLicoi, of which, however, he himself is the only person mentioned. Strabo (p. 594) ascribes to Anaxarchus and Callisthenes the recension of Homer, which Alexander kept in Darius's perfume-casket, and which is generally attributed to Aristotle. (Arrian, Andb. iv. 10; Plut. Alea\ 52; Plin. vii. 23; Aelian, V. H. ix. c. 37 ; Brucker, Hist. Philos. i. p. 1207; Datlre, Prolusio de Anaxarcho, Lips. 1762.) [P. S.J