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ANATOLIUS,

A. d. 346 to A. d. 361, cannot now be determined. His administration is mentioned by Marcellinus as an era of unusual improvement., and is also recorded by Aurelius Victor (Trajan} as a bright but soli­tary instance of reform, which checked the down­ward progress occasioned by the avarice and op­pression of provincial governors. He is often spoken of in the letters of Libanius ; and several letters of Libanius are extant addressed directly to Anatolius, and, for the most part, asking favours or recommending friends. We would refer especially to the letters 18, 466, 587, as illustrating the cha­racter of Anatolius. When he received from Con-stantius his appointment to the praefecture of Illy-ricum, he said to the emperor, " Henceforth, prince, no dignity shall shelter the guilty from punishment; henceforth, no one who violates the laws, however high may be his judicial or military rank, shall be allowed to depart with impunity." It appears that he acted up to his virtuous resolution.

He was not only an excellent governor, but ex­tremely clever, of very various abilities, eloquent, indefatigable, and ambitious. Part of a panegyric upon Anatolius composed by the sophist Himerius, has been preserved by Photius, but little if any­thing illustrative of the real character of Anatolius is to be collected from the remains of this panegy­ric. (Wernsdorff, ad Himerium, xxxii. and 297.) If we would learn something of the private history of the man, we must look into the letters of Liba­nius and the life of Proaeresius by Eunapius. In the 18th letter of Libanius, which is partly written in a tone of pique and persiflage^ it is difficult to say how far the censure and the praise are ironical. Libanius seems to insinuate, that his powerful ac­quaintance was stunted and ill-favoured in person ; did not scruple to enrich himself by accepting pre­sents voluntarily offered ; was partial to the Syrians, his own countrymen, in the distribution of patron­age ; and was apt, in his prosperity, to look down upon old friends.

Among his accomplishments it may be mentioned that he was fond of poetry, and so much admired the poetic effusions of Milesius of Smyrna, that he called him Milesius the Muse. Anatolius himself received from those who wished to detract from his reputation the nickname ^Agvrpi&v, a word which has puzzled the whole tribe of commentators and lexicographers, including Faber, Ducange, and Toup. It is probably connected in some way with the stage, as Eunapius refers for its explanation to the KaKodaiucav rwv frvuehav x°P^s' He was a heathen, and clung to his religion at a time when heathenism was unfashionable, and when the tide of opinion had begun to set strongly towards Chris­tianity. It is recorded, that, upon his arrival in Athens, he rather ostentatiously performed sacri­fices, and visited the temples of the gods.

An error of importance concerning Anatolius occurs in a work of immense learning and deserv­edly high authority. Jac. Godefroi states, in the Prosopographia attached to his edition of the Theo-•losian Code, that 16 letters of St. Basil the Great viz. letters 391-406) are addressed to Anatolius. This error, which we have no doubt originated rom the accidental descent of a sentence that be-onged to the preceding article on AmphilocJtius, ias been overlooked in the revision of Ritter.

The Anatolius who was P. P. of Illyricum is >elieved by some to have been skilled in agricul-ure and medicine as well as in law. It is possible

ANATOLIUS.

that he was identical with the Anatolius who is often cited in the Geoponica by one or other of the three names, Anatolius, Vindanius, (or Vindania-nus,) Berytius. These names have sometimes been erroneously supposed to designate three diffe­rent individuals. (Niclas, Prolegom. ad Geopon. p. xlviii. n.) The work on Agriculture written by this Anatolius, Photius (Cod. 163) thought the best work on the subject, though containing some mar­vellous and incredible things. Our Anatolius may also be identical with the author of a treatise con­cerning Symyiathies and Antipathies (Trepl 2v/j.Tra8€L<3v Kal 'AvTirraOetoov^ the remains of which may be found in Fabricius (Bib!. Gr. iv. p. 29); but we are rather disposed to attribute this work to Anatolius the philosopher, who was the master of lamblichus (Brucker, Hist. Phil. vol. ii. p. 260), and to whom Porphyry addressed Homeric Questions. Other contemporaries of the same name are mentioned by Libanius, and errors have frequently been com­mitted from the great number of Anatolii who held office under the Roman emperors. Thus our Ana­tolius has been confounded with the magister offici-orum who fell in the battle against the Persians at Maranga, a. d. 363, in which Julian was slain. (Am. Marc. xx. 9. § 8, xxv. 6. § 5.) [J. T. G.]

ANATOLIUS, professor of law at berytus. In the second preface to the Digest (Const. Tanta. § 9), he is mentioned by Justinian, with the titles vir illustris, magister^ among those who were employed in compiling that great work, and is complimented as a person descended from an an­cient legal stock, since both his father Leontius and his grandfather Eudoxius " optimam sui me-moriam in legibus reliquerunt" He wrote notes on the Digest, and a very concise commentary on Justinian's Code. Both of these works are cited in the Basilica. Matthaeus Blastares (in Praef. Syntag.} states, that the " professor (dvriKzvo-wp) Thalelaeus edited the Code at length ; Theodo-rus Hermopolites briefly; Anatolius still moro briefly; Isidorus more succinctly than Thalelaeus. but more diffusely than the other two." It is pos­sibly from some misunderstanding or some misquo­tation of this passage, that TeTrd&s,on(Histoire de la Jurisp. Rom. p. 358) speaks of an Anatolius different from the contemporary of Justinian, and says that this younger Anatolius was employed by the emperor Phocas, conjointly with Theodoras Hermopolites and Isidorus, to translate Justinian's Code into Greek. This statement, for which we have been able to find no authority, seems to be intrinsically improbable. The Constitutio^ Omnem (one of the prefaces of the Digest), bears date a. d. 533, and is addressed, among others, to Theodorus, Isidorus, and Anatolius. Now, it is very unlikely that three jurists of similar name should be employed conjointly by the emperor Phocas, who reigned A. d. 602—610. There was probably some con­fusion in the mind of Terrasson between the em­peror Phocas and a jurist of the same name, who was contemporary with Justinian, and commented upon the Code.

Anatolius held several offices of importance. He was advocatus fisci, and was one of the majoresju-dices nominated by Justinian in Nov. 82. c. 1. Finally, he filled the office of consul, and was ap­pointed curator divinae doinus et rei privatae. In the exercise of his official functions he became un­popular, by appropriating to himself, under colour of confiscations to the emperor, the effects of de-

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