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combinations of words, probably represents the cur­rent language of the age, but must be pronounced full of barbarisms and solecisms when judged ac­cording to the standard of Cicero and Livy.

The Editio Princeps of Arnmiaims Marcellinus, edited by Angelus Sabinus, was printed at Rome, in folio, by George Sachsel and Barth. Golsch in the year 1474. It is very incorrect, and contains 13 books only, from the 14th to the 26th, both inclusive. The remaining five were first published by Accorsi, who, in his edition printed in folio at Augsburg in 1532, boasts that he had corrected rive thousand errors.

The most useful modern editions are those of Gronovius, 4to., Lugd. Bat. 1693 ; of Ernesti, 8vo. Lips., 1773 ; but above all, that which was com­ menced by Wagner, completed after his death by Erfurdt, and published at Leipsic, in 3 vols. 8vo. 1808. [W. R.]

AMMON ('A/.t/.twj'), originally an Aethiopian or Libyan divinity, whose worship subsequently spread all over Egypt, a part of the northern coast of Africa, and many parts of Greece. The real Egyptian name was Amun or Ammun (Herod, ii. 42 ; Plut. de Is. et Os. 9}; the Greeks called him Zeus Ammon, the Romans Jupiter Ammon, and the Hebrews Amon. (Jerem. xlvi. 25.) That in the countries where his worship was first established he was revered in certain respects as the supreme divinity, is clear from the fact, that the Greeks recognised in him their own Zeus, although the identity of the two gods in later times rests upon philosophical speculations, made at a period when the original character of Ammon was almost lost sight of, and a more spiritual view of him substi­tuted in its place.

The most ancient seat of his worship appears to have been Meroe, where he had a much revered oracle (Herod, ii. 29); thence it was introduced into Egypt, where the worship took the firmest root at Thebes in Upper Egypt, which was there­fore frequently called by the Greeks Diospolis, or the city of Zeus. (Herod, ii. 42; Diod. i. 15.) Another famous seat of the god, with a celebrated oracle, was in the oasis of Ammonium (Siwah) in the Libyan desert; the worship was also established in Cyrenaica. (Paus. x. 13. § 3.) The god was represented either in the form of a ram, or as a human being with the head of a ram (Herod. /. c.; Strab. xvii. p. 812); but there are some represen­tations in which he appears altogether as a human being with only the horns of a ram. Tertullian (de Pall. 3) calls him dives ovium. If we take all these circumstances into consideration, it seems clear that the original idea of Ammon was that of a protector and leader of the flocks. The Aethio-pians were a nomadic people, flocks of sheep con­stituted their principal wealth, and it is perfectly in accordance with the notions of the Aethiopians as well as Egyptians to worship the animal Avhich is the leader and protector of the flock. This view is supported by various stories about Ammon. Hyginus (Poet. Astr. i. 20) whose account is only a rationalistic interpretation of the origin of the god's worship, relates that some African of the name of Ammon brought to Liber, who was then in possession of Egypt, a large quantity of cattle In return for this, Liber gave him a piece of land near Thebes, and in commemoration of the benefits lie had conferred upon the god, he was represented as a human being with horns. What Pausanias (iv. 23.


§5) and Eustathius (ad Dionys. Pe.rieg. 212) re­mark, as well as one of the many etymologies of the name of Ammon from the Egyptian word Amoni, which signifies a shepherd, or to feed, likewise accord with the opinion that Ammon was originally the leader and protector of flocks. Herodotus re­lates a story to account for the ram's head (ii. 42): Heracles wanted to see Zeus, but the latter wished to avoid the interview; when, however, Reticles at last had recourse to entreaties, Zeus contrived the following expedient: he cut oif the head of ;; ram, and holding this before his own head, and having covered the remaining part of his bod} with the skin of the ram, he appeared before Hera­cles. Hence, Herodotus adds, the Thebans nevei sacrifice rams except once a year, and on this on< occasion they kill and flay a ram, and with its skir they dress the statue of Zeus (Ammon) ; by th< side of this statue they then place that of Heracles A similar account mentioned by Servius (ad A en iv. 196)may serve as a commentary upon Herodotus When Bacchus, or according to others, Heracles went to India and led his army through the desert of Libya, he was at last quite exhausted witl thirst, and invoked his father, Jupiter. Hereupoi a ram appeared, which led Heracles to a plac< where it opened a spring in the sand by scraping with its foot. For this reason, savs Servius

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Jupiter Ammon, whose name is derived froii dfj-fjios (sand), is represented with the horns of ; ram. (Comp. Hygin. Fab. 133, Poet. Astr. i. 20 Lucan, Pharsal. ix. 511.) There are several othe traditions, with various modifications arising froii the time and place of their origin ; but all agree ii representing the ram as the guide and deliverer o the wandering herds or herdsmen in the deserts either in a direct way, or by giving oracles. Am mon, therefore, who is identical with the ram, i the guide and protector of man and of all his pos sessions; he stands in the same relation to man kind as the common ram to,his flock.

The introduction of the worship of Ammon fror Aethiopia into Egypt was symbolically represente in a ceremony which was performed at Thebe once in every year. On a certain day, the imag of the god was carried across the river Nile int Libya, and after some days it was brought back, a if the god had arrived from Aethiopia. (Diod. i. 97. The same account is given by Eustathius (ad Hon II. v. p. 128), though in a somewhat different form for he relates, that according to some, the Aethic pians used to fetch the images of Zeus and othe gods from the great temple of Zeus at Thebei With these images they went about, at a certai period, in Libya, celebrated a splendid festival fc twelve days—for this, he adds, is the number ( the gods they worship. This number twelve cot tains an allusion to the number of signs in th zodiac, of which the ram (caper) is one. Thus w arrive at the second phasis in the character < Ammon, who is here conceived as the sun in th sign of Caper. (Zeus disguised in the skin of a ran See Hygin. Fab. 133, Poet. Astr. i. 20 ; Macrol Sat. i. 21. 18 ; Aelian, V. H. x. 18.) This astrt nomical character of Ammon is of later origin, an perhaps not older than the sixth century befoi Christ. The speculating Greeks of still later timt assigned to Ammon a more spiritual nature. Thi Diodorus, though in a passage (Lii. 68, &c.) I" makes Ammon a king of Libya, describes him ( 11, &c.) as the spirit pervading the universe, an

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