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AMAZONES.

gean, Greece, Syria, Arabia. Egypt, and Libya. The country about the Thermodon with its capital Themiscyra was inhabited only by the Amazons, who were governed by a queen. The Gargareans, a race of men, were separated from them by a mountain, but once every year the Amazons met the Gargareans in the mountains for the purpose of propagating their race, and then returned to their own country. Their children, when of the female sex, were brought up by the Amazon mothers, and trained in their customary pursuits of war, riding, hunting, and cultivating the land; but each girl had her right breast cut off: their male children, on the other hand, were sent to the Gargareans, or put to death. (Strab. xi. p. 503, &c.; Diod. ii. 45, &c., iii. 52, &c.; Justin, ii. 4.) The principal gods they worshipped were Ares and, Artemis Tauro-polos. The foundation of several towns in Asia Minor and in the islands of the Aegean is ascribed to them, e. g. of Ephesus, Smyrna, Cyme, Myrina, and Paphos. Strabo doubts the existence of such a race of females, while Diodonis attempts to give an account of them, which assumes all the appear­ance of history. That the Amazons were regarded as a real historical race down to a late period, is evident from the tradition, that, when Alexander the Great approached the country of the Amazons, their queen Thalestris hastened to him, in order to become mother by the conqueror of Asia. (Plut. Aleoc. 46.)

But we confine ourselves here to noticing some of the mythical adventures with which the Ama­zons are connected. They are said to have in­vaded Lycia in the reign of lobates, but were de­stroyed by Bellerophontes, who happened to be staying at the king's court. (Horn. //. vi. 186, &c.; Schol. ad Lycoph. 17.) [bellerophontes, lao-medon.] At the time when Priam was yet a young man, they invaded Phrygia, and fought with the Phrygians and Trojans. (Horn. II. iii. 189, &c.) The ninth among the labours imposed upon Heracles by Eurystheus, was to take from Hippolyte, the queen of the Amazons, her girdle, the ensign of her kingly power, which she had re­ceived as a present from Ares. ( Apollod. ii. 5. $ 9; Diod. iv. 16 ; Hygin. Fab. 30 ; Quint. Smyrn. xi. 244.) [heracles.] In the reign of Theseus they invaded Attica. (Paus. i. 2; Plut. Thes. 31, 33.) [theseus.] Towards the end of the Trojan war, the Amazons, under their queen Penthesileia, came to the assistance of Priam; but the queen was killed by Achilles. (Quint. Smyrn. i. 669 ; Paus. v. 11. § 2; Philostr. Her. xix. 19.) [pen­thesileia.]

The question as to what the Amazons really were, or rather, what gave rise to the belief that there was such a race of women, has been much discussed by ancient as well as modern writers. Herodotus (iv. 110) says, that in the Scythian language their name was Oiorpata, which he trans­lates by tM/Spo/cToz/oj, The Greek name Amazones is usually derived from ^a^os1, the breast, and is sup­posed to mean "breastless," or "not brought up by the breast," "beings with strong breasts," or "with one breast." (Philostr. I.e.; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 402.) Others derive it from the Circassian word maza, said to signify the moon, or from Envmetcli, which, according to a Caucasian tradition, is said to have been their original name. (Sprengel, Apo-loffie des Hippocrates, ii. p. 597; Klaproth, Reise nach dem Caucasus., i. p. 655.) Among the various

AMBIORIX.

ways in which it has been attempted to account for the origin of the story about the Amazons, two deserve to be mentioned. One opinion is, that the peculiar way in which the women of some of the Caucasian districts lived, and performed the duties which in other countries devolve upon men, toge­ther with the many instances of female bravery and courage which are noticed as remarkable even by modern travellers, were conveyed to the inha­bitants of western Asia and the Greeks in vague and obscure reports, and thus gave rise to the belief in the existence of such a warlike race of women, and that these rumours and reports were subsequently worked out and embellished by popular tradition and poetry. Others think that the Amazons were originally priestesses of Artemis (the moon), whose worship was widely spread in Asia, and which they are said to have established in various parts. It is further inferred, from the name Ama­zones, that these priestesses mutilated their bodies by cutting off their breasts in a manner similar to that in which the Galli and other priests mutilated their bodies, and that thus the Amazons represented the male ideal in the female sex, just as the Galli repre­sented the female ideal in the male sex. But it would be difficult, in the first place, to prove the existence of such priestesses, and in the second, to show how they could have occasioned the belief in a whole

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female race of this kind. Neither the poetical nor historical traditions about the Amazons contain anything to render this opinion very plausible; and, in the absence of all positive evidence, the first opinion has much more to recommend it. (Comp. Miiller, Orcliom. p. 356, &c.)

The representation of these warlike women oc­ cupied the Greek artists very extensively, and we still possess a large series of the most beautiful works of art, such as paintings on vases and walls, bronzes, reliefs, and gems, in which the Amazons and their battles with men are represented. The most celebrated works of this kind in antiquity were the battle of the Amazons with the Athenians in the Poecile at Athens, by Nicon (Paus. i. 15. § 2), on the shield of Athena, and on the foot­ stool of the Olympian Zeus, by Phidias, (i. 17. § 2.) Amazons were also represented by Aicamenes in the pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. (v. 10. § 2.) Respecting the extant representations of Amazons and their costumes, see Miiller, Handb. d.Arclidol. $$ 365, 417. [L. S.]

AMAZONIUS ('Ajua£Jwos), a surname of Apollo, under which he was worshipped, and had a temple at Pyrrhichus in Laconia. The name was derived either from the belief that the Ama­ zons had penetrated into Peloponnesus as far as Pyrrhichus, or that they had founded the temple there. (Paus. iii. 25. §2.) [L. S.]

AMBIGATUS, king of the Celts in Gaul in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus. He belonged to the Bituriges, the most powerful of the Celtic peo­ple. When Ambigatus was advanced in years, he sent out Bellovcsus and Sigovesus., the sons of hia sister, with large swarms of his people to seek new settlements, in consequence of the great number of the population. Bellovesus and Sigovesus drew lots as to the course they should take ; the latter in consequence went to the Hercynian forest and the former into Italy. (Liv. v. 34.)

AMBIORIX, a chief of the Eburones, a Gallic people between the Meuse and the Rhine, who were formerly tributary to the Aduatici, but were

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