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When Polysperchon, baffled at Megalopolis (Diod. xviii. 72), withdrew into Macedonia, his son seems to have been left with an army in Peloponnesus, where, as we read in Diodorus (xix. 35), the field was left open to him, and the friends of oligarchy were greatly alarmed by the departure of Cassander into Macedon on the intelligence of the murder of Arrhidaeus and Eurydice by Olympias, b. c. 317. (Paus. i. 11 ; Diod. xix. 11.) During his absence, Alexander succeeded in bringing over to himself several cities and important places in the Pelopon­nesus (Diod. xix. 53); but, on Cassander's return to the south, after crushing Olympias in Macedon, he in vain attempted to check him by his fortifica­tion of the Isthmus, for Cassander, passing to Epidaurus by sea, regained Argos and Hermione, and afterwards also the Messenian towns, with the exception of Ithome. (Diod. xix. 54.)

In the next year, 315, Antigonus (whose am­bition and successes in the east had united against him Cassander., Lysimachus, Asander, and Ptolemy Soter), among other measures, sent Aristodemus into the Peloponnesus to form a league of amity with Polysperchon and Alexander; and the latter was persuaded by Aristodemus to pass over to Asia for a personal conference with Antigonus. Finding him at Tyre, a treaty was made between them, and Alexander returned to Greece with a present of 500 talents from Antigonus, and a multitude of magnificent promises. (Diod. xix. 60, 61.) Yet, in the very same year, we find him renouncing his alliance with Antigonus, and bribed by the title of governor of the Peloponnesus to reconcile himself to Cassander. (Diod. xix. 64.)

In the ensuing year, 314, we read of him as en­ gaged for Cassander in the siege of Cyllene, which however was raised by Aristodemus and his Aetolian auxiliaries. After the return of Aristo­ demus to Aetolia, the citizens of Dyme, in Achaia, having besieged the citadel, which was occupied by one of Cassander's garrisons, Alexander forced his way into the city, and made himself master of it, punishing the adverse party with death, imprison­ ment, or exile. (Diod. xix. 66.) Very soon after this he was murdered at Sicyon by Alexion, a Sicyonian, leaving the command of his forces to one who proved herself fully adequate to the task, —his wife Cratesipolis. (b. c. 314, Diod. xix. 67.) [E. E.]

ALEXANDER ('AAe£ai/Spos), a rhodian. In the war against Cassius he was at the head of the popular party, and was raised to the office of pry- tanis, b. c. 43. (Appian, de Bell. Civ. iv. 66.) But soon after, he and the Rhodian admiral, Mnaseas, were defeated by Cassius in a sea-fight off Cnidus. (Appian, do BdL Civ. iv. 71.) [L. S.'j

ALEXANDER (ST.), bishop of rome, a. d. 109—119. (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv. 4.) There are three Epistles falsely ascribed to him by Isidore Mercator, as well as a decree, according to Gratian. (Mansi, Concilia, vol. i. pp. 643—647.) Heracleon is said (in the book Praedestinalus^ ap. Sirmond. Opp. vol. i. p. 470) to have broached his heresy in Sicily in the time of St. Alexander, and to have been confuted bv him. But Heracleon was not,

v 7

perhaps, yet born. [A. J. C.J

ALEXANDER, who assumed the title of em­peror of rome in a. d. 311, was, according to some accounts, a Phrygian, and according to others a Pannonian. He was appointed by Maxentius governoi of Africa, but discovering that Maxen-


tius was plotting against his life, he assumed the purple, though he was of an advanced age and a timid nature. Maxentius sent some troops against him under Rufius Volusianus, who put down the insurrection without difficulty. Alex­ander was taken and strangled. (Zosimus, ii. 12, 14; Aur. Vict. de Caes. 40, Epit. 40.) There are a few medals of Alexander. In the one annexed we find the words imp. alexander. P. F. aug.; the reverse represents Victory, with this inscrip­tion, victoria alexandri aug. N., and at the bottom, P. K.

ALEXANDER OF SELEUCIA. [alex­ander peloplaton.]

ALEXANDER, I. II., kings of Syria. [alex­ander balas and zebina.]

ALEXANDER, TIBE'RIUS (Ti§e>os 'AAe'g-avSpos), was born at Alexandria, of Jewish parents. His father held the office of Alabarch in Alexandria, and his uncle was Philo, the well-known writer. Alexander, however, did not continue in the faith of his ancestors, and was rewarded for his apostacy by various public appointments. In the reign of Claudius he succeeded Fadius as procurator of Judaea, about a. d. 46, and was promoted to the equestrian order. He was subsequently appointed by Nero procurator of Egypt; and by his orders 50,000 Jews were slain on one occasion at Alex­andria in a tumult in the city. It was apparently during his government in Egypt that he accom­panied Corbulo in his expedition into Armenia, a. d. 64; and he was in this campaign given as one of the hostages to secure the safety of Tiriclates, when the latter visited the Roman camp. Alex­ander was the first Roman governor who declarec in favour of Vespasian ; and the day on which he administered the oath to the legions in the name o Vespasian, the Kalends of July, a. d. 69, is re­garded as the beginning of that emperor's reign Alexander afterwards accompanied Titus in the wa: against Judaea, and was present at the takin< of Jerusalem. (Joseph. Ant. Jud. xx. 4. § '2 Bell. Jud. ii. 11. § 6, 15. § 1, 18. § 7, 8, iv. 10 § 6, vi. 4. § 3; Tac. Ann. xv. 28, Hist. i. 11, ii 74, 79; Suet. ^esp. 6.)

ALEXANDER TllALLIA'NUS('AAe|a*>fyo 6 TpaAAtaz>os), one of the most eminent of the an cient physicians, was born at Tralles, a city o Lydia, from whence he derives his name. Hi date may safely be put in the sixth century afte Christ, for he mentions Aetius (xii. 8, p. 346" who probably did not write till the end of th fifth or the beginning of the sixth century, an> he is himself quoted by Paulus Aegineta (iii. 21 78, vii. 5, 11, 19, pp. 447, 495, 650, 660, 687; who is supposed to have lived in the seventh ; be sides which, he is mentioned as a contemporary b Agathias [Hist. v. p. 149), who set about writin his History in the beginning of the reign of Justi the younger, about a. d. 565. He had the at vantage of being brought up under his fathei Stephanie, who was himself a physician (iv. :

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