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pointed to march tinder Pelopidas is said to have been dismayed by an eclipse (June 13, 364), and Pelopidas, leaving it behind, entered Thessaly at the head of three hundred volunteer horsemen and some mercenaries. A battle ensued at Cynosce-phalae, wherein Pelopidas was himself slain, but defeated Alexander (Pint. Pel. pp. 295, 296 ; Diod. xv. 80) ; and this victory was closely followed by another of the Thebans under Malcites and Diogiton, who obliged Alexander to restore to the Thessalians the conquered towns, to confine himself to Pherae, and to be a dependent ally of Thebes. (Pint. Pel p. 297, &c.; Diod. xv. 80; comp. Xen. Hell.vii. 5. § 4.)
The death of Epaminondas in 362, if it freed Athens from fear of Thebes, appears at the same time to have exposed her to annoyance from Alexander, who, as though he felt that he had no further occasion for keeping up his Athenian alliance, made a piratical descent on Tenos and others of the Cyclades, plundering them, and making slaves of the inhabitants. Peparethus too he besieged, and " even landed troops in Attica itself, and seized the port of Panonnus, a little eastward of Sunium." Leosthenes, the Athenian admiral, defeated him, and relieved Peparethus, but Alexander delivered his men from blockade in Panormus, took several Attic triremes, and plundered the Peiraeeus. (Diod. xv. 95; Polyaen. vi. 2; Demosth. c. Pol-ijcL pp. 1207, 1208 ; Trepi (Trecp. rtfs rpirjp.
p. 1330 ; Thirl wall, Gr. Hist vol. v. p. 209 : but
for another account of the position of Panormus, see Wess. ad Diod. I. c.)
The murder of Alexander is assigned by Diodo- rus to b. c. 367. Plutarch gives a detailed ac count of it, containing a lively picture of a semi- barbarian palace. Guards watched throughout it all the night, except at the tyrant's bedchamber, which was situated at the top of a ladder, and at the door of which a ferocious dog was chained. Thebe, the wife and cousin of Alexander, and daughter of Jason (Plut. Pel. p. 293, a), concealed her three brothers in the house during the day, caused the dog to be removed when Alexander had retired to rest, and having covered the steps of the adder with wool, brought up the young men to ier husband's chamber. Though she had taken iway Alexander's sword, they feared to set about .he deed till she threatened to awake him and dis cover all: they then entered and despatched him. :Iis body was cast forth into the streets, and exposed to every indignity. Of Thebe's motive or the murder different accounts are given. Plu- arch states it to have been fear of her husband, ogether with hatred of his cruel and brutal cha- acter, and ascribes these feelings principally to he representations of Pelopidas, when she vi- ited him. in his prison. In Cicero the deed is scribed to jealousy. (Plut. Pel. pp. 293, b, 297, d; Hod. xvi. 14; Xen. Hell. vi. 4. § 37; Cic. de Off. . 7. See also Cic. de Inv. ii. 49, where Alex- .pder's murder illustrates a knotty point for spe- .al pleading ; also Aristot. ap. Cic. de Dili. i. 25 ; le dream of Eudemus.) [E. E.] ALEXA'NDER PHILALE'THES ('AA^ay- 5os <J>jAaA?}0T7s), an ancient Greek physician, who called by Octavius Horatianus (iv. p. 102, d. ed. .rgent. 1532), Alexander A mator Veri^ and who probably the same person who is quoted by uelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Acut. ii. 1, p. 74) ider the name of Alexander Laodicensis. He
lived probably towards the end of the first century before Christ, as Strabo speaks of him (xii. p. 580) as a contemporary; he was a pupil of Asclepiades (Octav. Ho rat. /. c.), succeeded Zeuxis as head of a celebrated Herophilean school of medicine, esta blished in Phrygia between Laodicea and Carura (Strab. I. c.), and was tutor to Aristoxenus and Demosthenes Philalethes. (Galen. De, Differ. Puh. iv. 4, 10, vol. viii. pp. 727, 746.) He is several times mentioned by Galen and also by Soranus (De Arte Obstetr. c. 93, p. 210), and appears to have written some medical works, which are no longer extant. [W. A. G.]
ALEXANDER ('AAelavSpos), was appointed governor of phocis by Philip III. of Macedonia. The Phocian town of Phanotens was commanded by Jason, to whom he had entrusted this post. In concert with him he invited the Aetolians to come and take possession of the town, promising that it should be opened and surrendered to them. The Aetolians, under the command of Aegetas, accordingly entered the town at night; and when their best men were within the walls, they were made prisoners by Alexander and his associate. This happened in b. c. 217. (Polyb. v. 96.) [L. S.J
ALEXANDER ('AAe|a*/fyos), son of polys-perchon, the Macedonian. The regent Anti-pater, on his death (b. c. 320), left the regency to Polysperchon, to the exclusion and consequent discontent of his own son, Cassander. (Diod. xviii. 48 ; Plut. Phoc. p. 755, f.) The chief men, who had been placed in authority by Antipater in the garrisoned towns of Greece, were favourable to Cassander, as their patron's son, and Polysperchon's policy, therefore, was to reverse the measures of Antipater, and restore democracy where it had been abolished by the latter. It was then, in the prosecution of this design, that his son Alexander was sent to Athens, B. c. 318, with the alleged object of delivering the city from Nicanor, who by Cas-sander's appointment commanded the garrison placed b}^ Antipater in Munychia. (Plut. Pho<: 755, f. 756, e.; Diod. xviii. 65.) Before his arrival, Nicanor, besides strengthening himself with fresh troops in Munychia, had also treacherously seized the Peiraeeus. To occupy these two ports himself soon appeared to be no less the intention of Alexander, —an intention which he had probably formed before any communication with Phocion, though Diodorus (I. c.) seems to imply the contrary. The Athenians, however, looked on Phocion as the author of the design, and their suspicions and anger being excited by the private conferences of Alexander with Nicanor, Phocion was accused of treason, and, fleeing with several of his friends to Alexander, was by him despatched to Polysperchon. (Diod. xviii. 66 ; Plut. Phoc. 756, f. 757, a.) Cassander, arriving at Athens soon after and occupying the Peiraeeus, was there besieged by Polysperchon with a large force; but the supplies of the latter being inadequate, he was obliged to withdraw a portion of his army, with which he went to attempt the reduction of Megalopolis, while Alexander was left in command of the remainder at Athens. (Diod. xviii. 68.) Here he appears to have continued without effecting anything, till the treaty and capitulation of Athens with Cassander (Paus. i. 25 ; Diod. xviii. 74) gave the city to the power of the latter.