The Ancient Library

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Hindoo Coosh), and marched into Bactria against Bessus. On the approach of Alexander, Bessus fled across the Oxus into Sogdiana. Alexander followed him, and transported his army across the river on the skins of the tents stuffed with straw. Shortly after the passage Bessus was betrayed into his hands, and, after being cruelly mutilated by order of Alexander, was put to death. From the Oxus Alexander advanced as far as the Jaxartes (the Sir), which he crossed, and defeated several Scythian tribes north of that river. After founding a city Alexandria on the Jaxartes, he retraced his steps, recrossed the Oxus. and returned to Zariaspa or Bactra, where he spent the winter of 329. It was here that Alexander killed his friend Cleitus in a drunken revel. [cleitijs.]

In the spring of B. c. 328, Alexander again crossed the Oxus to complete the subjugation of Sogdiana, but was not able to effect it in the year, and accordingly went into winter quarters at Nau-taca, a place in the middle of the province. At the beginning of the following year, b. c. 327, he took a mountain fortress, in which Oxyartes, a*Bactrian prince, had deposited his wife and daughters. The beauty of Roxana, one of the latter, captivated the conqueror, and he accordingly made her his wife.; This marriage with one of his eastern sub­jects was in accordance with the whole of his policy. Having completed the conquest of Sogdi­ana, Alexander marched southward into Bactria, and made preparations for the invasion of India. While in Bactria, another conspiracy was discov­ered for the murder of the king. The plot was formed by Hermolaus with a number of the royal pages, and Callisthenes, a pupil of Aristotle, was ' involved in it. All the conspirators were put to death.

Alexander did not leave Bactria till late in the spring of B. c. 327, and crossed the Indus, proba­bly near the modern Attock. He now entered the country of the Penjab, or the Five Rivers. Taxilas, the king of the people immediately east of the Indus, submitted to him, and thus he met with no resistance till he reached the Hydaspes, upon the opposite bank of which Porus, an Indian king, was posted with a large army and a consider­able number of elephants. Alexander managed to cross the river unperceived by the Indian king, and then an obstinate battle followed, in which Porus was defeated after a gallant resistance, and taken prisoner. Alexander restored to him his kingdom, and treated him with distinguished ionour.

Alexander remained thirty days on the Hydaspes, luring which time he founded two towns, one on ;ach bank of the river: one was called Bucephala, n honour of his horse Bucephalus, who died here, ifter carrying him through so many victories; and lie other Nicaea, to commemorate his victory, thence he marched to the Acesines (the ), which he crossed, and subsequently to the lydraotes (the Ravee), which he also crossed, o attack another Porus, who had prepared a resist him. But as he approached nearer, his Porus fled, and his dominions were given 3 the one whom he had conquered on the lydaspes. The Cathaei, however, who also welt east of the Hydraotes, offered a vigorous Bsistance, but were defeated. Alexander still i-essed forward till he reached the Hyphasis 3arra), which he was preparing to cross, when



the Macedonians, worn out by long service, and tired of the war, refused to proceed ; and Alexan­der, notwithstanding his entreaties and prayers, was obliged to lead them back. He returned to the Hydaspes, where he had previously given orders for the building of a fleet, and then sailed down the river with about 8000 men, while the remainder marched along the banks in two divi­sions. This was late in the autumn of 327. The people on each side of the river submitted with­out resistance, except the Malli, in the conquest of one of whose places Alexander was severely wounded. At the confluence of the Acesines and the Indus, Alexander founded a city, and left Philip as satrap, with a considerable body of Greeks. Here he built some fresh ships, and shortly afterwards sent about a third of tlte army, under Craterus, through the country of the Arachoti and Drangae into Carmania. lie himself continued his voyage down the Indus, founded a city at Pattala, the apex of the delta of the Indus, and sailed into the Indian ocean. He seerns to have reached the mouth of the Indus about the middle of 326. Nearchus was sent with the fleet to sail along the coast to the Persian gulf [nearchus], and Alexander set out from Pattala, about September, to return to Persia. In his march through Gedrosia, his army suffered greatly from want of water and provisions, till they arrived at Pura, where they obtained supplies. From Pura he advanced to Carman (Kirman), the capital of Carmania, where he was joined by Craterus, with his detachment of the army, and also by Nearchus, who had accomplished the voyage in safety. Alexander sent the great body of the army, under He-phaestion, along the Persian gulf, while he him­self, with a small force, marched to Pasargadae, and from thence to Perscpolis, where he ap­pointed Peucestas, a Macedonian, governor, in place of the former one, a Persian, whom he put to death, for oppressing the province.

From Persepolis Alexander advanced to Susa, which he reached in the beginning of 325. Here he allowed himself and his troops some rest from their labours; and faithful to his plan of forming his European and Asiatic subjects into one people, he assigned to about eighty of his generals Asiatic wives, and gave with them rich dowries. He him­self took a second wife, Barsine, the eldest daugh­ter of Darius, and according to some accounts, a third, Parysatis, the daughter of Ochus. About 10,000 Macedonians also followed the example of their king and generals, and married Asiatic women; all these received presents from the king. Alexander also enrolled large numbers of Asiatics among his troops, and taught them the Macedonian tactics. He moreover directed his attention to the increase of commerce, and for this purpose had the Euphrates and Tigris made navigable, by removing the artificial obstructions which had been made in the river for the purpose of irrigation.

The Macedonians, who were discontented with several of the new arrangements of the king, and especially at his placing the Persians on an equality with themselves in many respects, rose in mutiny against him, which he quelled with some little difficulty, and he afterwards dismissed about 10,000 Macedonian veterans, who returned to Europe un­der the command of Cratorus. Towards the close of the same year («. c. 325) he went to Ecbatana,

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