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ALEXANDER.

books, and contains several interesting medical ob­servations along with much that is frivolous and trifling. It was first published in a Latin transla­tion by George Valla, Venet. 1488, fol. The Greek text is to be found in the Alcline edition of Aristotle's works, Tenet, fol. 1495, and in that by Sylburgius, Francof. 1585, 8vo.; it was published with a Latin translation by J. Davion, Paris. 1540, 1541, 16mo.; and it is inserted in the first volume of Ideler's Pkysici et Medici Graeci Minores, Berol. 1841, 8vo.

The other work is a short treatise, TlepJ riypercSz', De Febribus, which is addressed to a medical pupil whom the author offers to instruct in any other branch of medicine; it is also omitted in the Arabic list of Alexander's works mentioned above. For these reasons it does not seem likely to be the work of Alexander Aphrodisiensis, while the whole of the twelfth book of the great medical work of Alexander Trallianus (to whom it has also been attributed) is taken up with the subject of Fever, and he would hardly have written two treatises on the same disease without making in either the slightest allusion to the other. It may possibly belong to one of the other numerous physicians of the name of Alexander. It was first published in a Latin translation by George Valla, Venet. 1498, fol., which was several times reprinted. The Greek text first appeared in the Cambridge Museum Criticu.m, vol. ii. pp. 359—389, transcribed by De­ metrius Schinas from a manuscript at Florence; it was published, together with Valla's translation, by Franz Passow, Vratislav. 1822, 4to., and also in Passow's Opuscula Academica, Lips. 1835, 8vo., p. 521. The Greek text alone is contained in the first volume of Ideler's Physici et Medici Graeci Minores, Herol. 1841, 8vo. [W. A. G.]

ALEXANDER ('AAegc«/5pos), the eldest son of aristobulus II., king of Judaea, was taken pri­soner, with his father and brother, by Pompey, on the capture of Jerusalem (b. c. 63), but made his escape as they were being conveyed to Rome. In b. c. 57, he appeared in Judaea, raised an army of 10,000 foot and 1500 horse, and fortified Alexan-dreion and other strong posts. Hyrcanus applied for aid to Gabinius, who brought a large army against Alexander, and sent M. Antonius with a body of troops in advance. In a battle fought near Jerusalem, Alexander was defeated with great loss, and took refuge in the fortress of Alexan-dreion, which was forthwith invested. Through the mediation of his mother he was permitted to depart, on condition of surrendering all the for­tresses still in his power. In the following year, during the _expedition of Gabinius into Egypt, Alexander again excited the Jews to revolt, and collected an army. He massacred all the Romans who fell in his way, and besieged the rest, who had taken refuge on Mount Gerizim. After rejecting the terms of peace which were offered to him by Gabinius, he was defeated near Mount Tabor with the loss of 10,000 men. The spirit of his ad­herents, however, was not entirely crushed, for in b. c. 53, on the death of Crassus, he again collected some forces, but was compelled to come to terms by Cassius. (b. c. 52.) In b. c. 49, on the breaking out of the civil war, Caesar set Aristobulus at liberty, and sent him to Judaea, to further his in­terests in that quarter. Pie was poisoned on the journey, and Alexander, who was preparing to support him, was seized at the command of Pompey,

ALEXANDER.

and beheaded at Antioch. (Joseph. Ant. Jud* xiv. 5—7 ; Bell. Jud. i. 8, 9.) [C. P. M.]

ALEXANDER, of athens, a comic poet, the son of Aristion, whose name occurs in an inscrip­tion given in Bb'ckh (Corp. Inscr. i. p. 765), who refers it to the 145th Olympiad. (b. c. 200.) There seems also to have been a poet of the same name who was a writer of the middle comedy, quoted by the Schol. on Homer (//. ix. 216), and Aristoph. (Ran. 864), and Athen. (iv. p. 170, e. x. p. 496, c.; Meineke, Frac/m. Com. vol. i. p. 487.) [C. P. M.]

ALEXANDER ('AAe£az/fyos), an ambassador of king attalus, sent to Rome in b.c. 198, to negotiate peace with the Roman senate. (Polyb. xvii. 10.) [L. S.]

ALEXANDER BALAS ('AAe|a%os BdAas), a person of low origin, usurped the throne of the Greek kingdom of Syria, in the year 150, B. c., pretending that he was the son of Antiochus Epiphanes. His claim was set up by Heracleides, who had been the treasurer of the late king Antio­chus Epiphanes, but had been banished to Rhodes by the reigning king, Demetrius Soter; and he was supported by Ptolemy Philometor, king of Egypt, Ariarthes Philopator, king of Cappadocia, and Attains Philadelphus, king of Pergamus. Heracleides also, having taken Alexander to Rome, succeeded in obtaining a decree of the senate in his favour. Furnished with forces by these allies, Alexander entered Syria in 152, b. c., took pos­session of Ptolemais., and fought a baitle with Demetrius Soter, in which, however, he was de­feated. In the year 150 B. c. Alexander again met Demetrius in battle with better success. The army of Demetrius was completely routed, and he himself perished in the flight. No sooner had Alexander thus obtained the kingdom than he gave up the administration of affairs to his minis­ter Ammonius, and himself to a life of pleasure. Ammonius put to death all the members of the late royal family who were in his power; but two sons of Demetrius were safe in Crete. The elder of them, who was named Demetrius, took the field in Cilicia against the usurper. Alexander applied for help to his father-in-law, Ptolemy Philometor, who marched into Syria, and then declared him­self in favour of Demstrius. Alexander now re­turned from Cilicia, whither he had gone to meet Demetrius, and engaged in battle with Ptolemy at the river Oenoparas. In this battle, though Ptolemy fell, Alexander was completely defeated, and he was afterwards murdered bv an Arabian

*/

" king." On some of his coins he is called "Epiphanes" and " Nicephorus" after his pre­tended father. On others " Euergetes " and " Theopator." (Polyb. xxxiii. 14, 16^; Liv. Epit. \, liiL ; Justin, xxv.; Appian, Syriaca, c, 67; 1

emir with whom he had taken refuge. (b. c. 146.) The meaning of his surname (Balas) is doubtful. It is most probably a title signifying " lord" or

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