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20. Alci-21.Celinias. 22.Alcibiades, 23.Cleinias. 24. Callias. 25.Isodice=Cimon. 26. Paralus. 27.Xan- blades. (Xenoph. (the great (Plat. (The rich (Plut. (Plat. Me- thippus. (Xenopli. Conviv. general. Protag. callias.) CimA.) non, 94; Hellen. i. iv. 12.) alcibi- p. 320.) Protag.}). 2. §13.) ades.) 315; Plut.
| Per. 37.) 28. Alcibiades. (alcibi ades.)
The Alcmaeonidae were a branch of the family of the neleidae. The Neleidae were driven out of Pylus in Messenia by the Dorians, about 1100 b. c., and went to Athens, where Melanthus, the representative of the elder branch of the family became king, and Alcmaeon, the representative of the second branch,became a noble and the ancestor of the Alcmaeonidae. Alcmaeon was the great-grandson of Nestor. (Paus. ii. 18. § 7.) Among the archons for life, the sixth is named Megacles, and the last Alcmaeon. But, as the archons for life appear to have been always taken from the family of Me-don, it is probable that these were only Alcmaeo-nids on the mother's side. The first remarkable man among the Alcmaeonids was the archon Megacles, who brought upon the family the guilt of sacrilege by his treatment of the insurgents under Cylon. (b. c. 612.) [cimon megacles.] The expulsion of the Alcmaeonids was now loudly demanded, and Solon, who probably saw in such an event an important step towards his intended reforms, advised them to submit their cause to a tribunal of three hundred nobles. The result was that they were banished from Athens and retired to Phocis, probably about 596 or 595 b. c. Their wealth having been augmented by the liberality of Croesus to Alcmaeon, the son of Megacles [alcmaeon], and their influence increased by the marriage of Megacles, the son of Alcmaeon, to Agariste, the daughter of Cleisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, they took advantage of the divided state of Athens, and by joining the party of Lycurgus, they effected their return ; and shortly afterwards, by a similar union, they expelled Peisistratus soon after he had seized the government. (b. c. 559.) [peisistratus.] This state of things did not last long; for, at the end of five years, Megacles gave his daughter Coesyra in marriage to Peisistratus, and assisted in his restoration to Athens. But a new quarrel immediately arose out of the conduct of Peisistratus towards his wife, and the Alcmaeonids once more expelled him. During the following ten years, Peisistratus collected an army, with which he invaded Attica, and defeated the Alcmaeonids, who were now once more driven into exile. They were, however, still formidable enemies. After the death of Hippar-chus, they took possession of Lipsydicum, a fortress on the frontier of Attica, and made an attempt to restore themselves, but were defeated by Hippias. They had, however, a more important source of influence. In the year 548 b. c. the temple of Apollo at Delphi was burnt, and the Alcmaeonids having contracted with the Amphic-tyonic council to rebuild it, executed the work in a style of magnificence which much exceeded their engagement. They thus gained great popularity throughout Greece, while they contrived to bring the Peisistratids into odium by charging them with having caused the fire. The oracle, besides, fa-
voured them thenceforth; and whenever it was consulted by a Spartan, on whatever matter, the answer always contained an exhortation to give Athens freedom ; and the result was that at length the Spartans expelled Hippias, and restored the Alcmaeonids. (b. c. 510.) The restored family found themselves in an isolated position, between the nobles, who appear to have been opposed to them, and the popular party which had been hi therto attached to the Peisistratids. Cleisthenes, now the head of the Alcmaeonidae, joined the lat ter party, and gave a new constitution to Athens. Further particulars respecting the family are given under the names of its members, (Herod, vi. 121-131 ; Pindar, Pytli. vii., and Bockh's notes ; Clinton's Fasti, ii. p. 4, 299.) [P. S.]
ALCMAN ('AA/c^uaV), called by the Attic and later Greek writers Alcmaeon (JAA/<:/xcu&>i>), the chief lyric poet of Sparta, was by birth a Lydian of Sardis. His father's name was Damas or Tita-rus. He was brought into Laconia as a slave, evidently when very young. His master, whose name was Agesidas, discovered his genius, and emancipated him ; and he then began to distinguish himself as a lyric poet. (Suidas, s. v.; Heraclid* Pont. Polit. p. 206 ; Veil. Pat. i. 18; Alcman, fr. 11, Welcker; Epigrams by Alexander Aetolus, Leonidas, and Antipater Thess., in Jacob's Anfliol. Graec. i. p. 207, No. 3, p. 175, No. 80, ii. p. 110, No. 56 ; in the Anthol. Palat. vii. 709, 19, 18.) In the epigram last cited it is said, that the two continents strove for the honour of his birth ; and Suidas (/. c.) calls him a Laconian of Messoa, which may mean, however, that he was enrolled as a citizen of Messoa after his emancipation. The above statements seem to be more in accordance with the authorities than the opinion of Bode, that Alcman's father was brought from Sardis to Sparta as a slave, and that Alcman himself was born at Messoa. It is not known to what extent he obtained the rights of citizenship.
The time at which Alcman lived is rendered somewhat doubtful by the different statements of the Greek and Armenian copies of Eusebius, and of the chroriographers who followed him. On the whole, however, the Greek copy of Eusebius appears to be right in placing him at the second year of the twenty-seventh Olympiad. (b. c. 671.) He was contemporary with Ardys, king of Lydia, who reigned from 678 to 629, b. c., with Lesches, the author of the "Little Iliad," and with Ter-pander, during the later years of these two poets; he was older than Stesichorus, and he is said to have been the teacher of Arion. From these circumstances, and from the fact which we learn from himself (.Fr.2.9), that he lived to a great age, we may conclude, with Clinton, that he flourished from about 671 to about 631 B. c. (Clinton, Fast. i. pp. 189, 191, 365; Hermann, Antiq. Lacon. pp»