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ALCIBIADES.

before b. c. 420, lie had carried a decree for in­creasing the tribute paid by the subject allies of Athens, and by his management it was raised to double the amount fixed by Aristeides. After the death of Cleon there was no rival able at all to cope with Alcibiades except Nieias. To the politi­cal views of the latter, who was anxious for peace and repose and averse to all plans of foreign con­quests, Alcibiades was completely opposed, and his jealousy of the influence and high character of his rival, led him to entertain a very cordial dislike towards him. On one occasion only do we find them united in purpose and feeling, and that was when Hyperbolus threatened one of them with banishment. On this they united their influence, and Hyperbolus himself was ostracised. The date of this occurrence is uncertain.

Alcibiades had been desirous of renewing those ties of hospitality by which his family had been connected with Sparta, but which had been broken off bv his grandfather. With this view he vied

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with Nicias in his good offices towards the Spartan prisoners taken in Sphacteria; but in the negotia­tions which ended in the peace of 421, the Spartans preferred employing the intervention of Nicias and Laches. Incensed at this slight, Alcibiades threw all his influence into the opposite scale, and in b. c. 420, after tricking the Spartan ambassadors who had come for the purpose of thwarting his plans, brought about an alliance with Argos, Elis, and Mantineia. In 419 he was chosen Strategos, and at the head of a small Athenian force marched into Peloponnesus, and in various ways furthered the interests of the new confederacy. During the next three years he took a prominent part in the complicated negotiations and military operations which were carried on. Whether or not he was the instigator of the unjust expedition against the Melians is not clear ; but he was at any rate the author of the decree for their barbarous punish­ment, and himself purchased a Melian woman, by whom he had a son.

In b. c. 415 Alcibiades appeals as the foremost among the advocates of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. vi.), which his ambition led him to believe would be a step towards the conquest of Italy, Carthage, and the Peloponnesus. (Thuc. vi. 90.) While the preparations for the expedition were going on, there occurred the mysterious mutilation of the Hermes-busts A man named Pythonicus charged Alcibiades with having divulged and pro­faned the Eleusinian mysteries ; and another man, Androcles, endeavoured to connect this and similar offences with the mutilation of the Hermae. In spite of his demands for an investigation, Alci­biades was sent out with Nicias and Lamachus in command of the fleet, but was recalled before he could carry out the plan of operations which at his suggestion had been adopted, namely, to endeavour to win over the Greek towns in Sicily, except Syracuse and Selinus, and excite the native Sicels to revolt, and then attack Syracuse. He was allowed to accompany the Salaminia in his own galley, but managed to escape at Thurii, from which place he crossed over to Cyllene, and thence proceeded to Sparta at the invitation of the Spartan government. He now appeared as the avowed enemy of his country; disclosed to the Spartans the .plans of the Athenians, and recom­mended them to send G.ylippus to Syracuse, and to fortify Deceleia. (Time. vi. 88, &c., vii. 18,

ALCIBIADES.

27, 28.) Before he left Sicily he had managed to defeat a plan which .had been laid for the acquisi­tion of Messana. At Athens sentence of death was passed upon him, his property confiscated, and a curse pronounced upon him by the ministers of religion. At Sparta he rendered himself popular by the facility with which he adopted the Spartan manners. Through his instrumentality many of the Asiatic allies of Athens were induced to revolt, and an" alliance was brought about with Tissa-phernes (Thuc. viii. 6,&c.); but the machinations of his enemy Agis [Aois II.] induced him to abandon the Spartans and take refuge with Tissaphernes (b. c. 412), whose favour he soon gained by his unrivalled talents for social intercourse. The estrangement of Tissaphernes from his Spartan allies ensued. Alcibiades, the enemy of Sparta, wished to return to Athens. He according­ly entered into correspondence with the most influential persons in the Athenian fleet at Samos, offering to bring over Tissaphernes to an alliance with Athens, but making it a condition, that oli­garchy should be established there. This coincid­ing with the wishes of those with whom he was negotiating, those political movements were set on foot by Peisander, which ended (b. c. 411) in the establishinennt of the Four Hundred. The oli­garchs, however, finding he could not perform his promises with respect to Tissaphernes, and conscious that he had at heart no real liking for an oligarchy, would not recall him. But the soldiers in the armament at Samos, headed by Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus, declared their resolution to restore democracy, and passed a vote, by which Alcibiades was pardoned and recalled, and appointed one of their generals. He conferred an important benefit on his country, by restraining the soldiers from returning at once to Athens and so commencing a civil war •, and in the course of the same year the oligarchy was overthrown without their assistance.. Alcibiades rind the other exiles were recalled, but for the next four yenra he remained abroad, and under his command the Athenians gained the vic­tories of Cynossema, Abydos,* and Cyzicus, and got possession of Chalcedon and Byzantium. In b. c. 407, he returned to Athens, where he was received with great enthusiasm. The records of the proceedings against him were sunk in the sea, his property was restored, the priests were ordered to recant their curses, and he was appointed corn-man der-in-chief of all the land and sea forces. (Diod. xiii. 69; Plut. Ale. 33; Xen. Hell. i. 4. § 13—20.) He signalised his return by conduct­ing the mystic procession to Eleusis, which had been interrupted since the occupation of Deceleia. Bat his unsuccessful expedition against Andros and the defeat at Notium, occasioned during his absence by the imprudence of his lieutenant, An-tiochus, who brought on an engagement against his orders, furnished his enemies with a handle against him, and he was superseded in his command. (b. c. 406.)

Thinking that Athens would scarcely be a safe place for him, Alcibiades went into voluntary exile.

* Shortly after the victory at Abydos, Alci­biades paid a visit to Tissaphernes, who had ar­rived in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont, but was arrested by him and sent to Sardis. After a month's imprisonment, however, he succeeded in making his escape. (Xen. Hdlen. i. 1. § 9.)

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