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ALCAEUS.

of Paros. Apollodorus (ii. 5. § 9) relates that he was a son of Androgeus (the son of Minos) and brother of Sthenelus, and that when Heracles, on his expedition to fetch the girdle of Ares, which was in the possession of the queen of the Amazons, arrived at Paros, some of his companions were slain by the sons of Minos, residing there. He­racles, in his anger, slew the descendants of Minos, except Alcaeus and Sthenelus, whom he took with him, and to whom he afterwards assigned the island of Thasus as their habitation. [L. S.]

ALCAEUS ('AA/catos), of mbssene, the author of a number of epigrams in the Greek anthology, from some of which his date may be easily fixed. He was contemporary with Philip III., king of Macedonia, and son of Demetrius, against whom several of his epigrams are pointed, apparently from patriotic feelings. One of these epigrams, however, gave even more offence to the Roman general, Flamininus, than to Philip, on account of the author's ascribing the victory of Cynoscepha-lae to the Aetolians as much as to the Romans. Philip contented himself with writing an epigram in reply to that of Alcaeus, in which he gave the Messenian a very broad hint of the fate he might expect if he fell into his hands. (Pint. Flamin. 9.) This reply has singularly enough led Salmasius {De Cruce, p. 449, ap. Fabric. Biblioth. Grace, ii. p. 88) to suppose that Alcaeus was actually crucified. In another epigram, in praise of Flamininus, the mention of the Roman general's name, Titus, led Tzetzes (Proleg. in Lycopliron) into the error of imagining the existence of an epigrammatist named Alcaeus under the emperor Titus. Those epigrams of Alcaeus which bear internal evidence of their date, were written between the years 219 and 196 b. c.

, Of the twenty-two epigrams in the Greek An­thology which bear the name of "Alcaeus," two have the word " Mytilenaeus" added to it; but Jacobs seems to be perfectly right in taking this to be the addition of some ignorant copyist. Others bear the name of "Alcaeus Messenius," and some of Alcaeus alone. But in the last class there are several which must, from internal evidence, have been written by Alcaeus of Messene, and, in fact, there seems no reason to doubt his being the author of the whole twenty-two.

There are mentioned as contemporaries of Al­caeus, two other persons of the same name, one of them an Epicurean philosopher, who was expelled from Rome by a decree of the senate about 173 or 154 b. c. (Perizon. ad Aelian. V. H. ix. 22 ; Athen. xii. p. 547, a.; Suidas, s. v. 'ETriKovpos}: the other is incidentally spoken of by Polybius as being accustomed to ridicule the grammarian Isocrates. 'Polyb. xxxii. 6; b.c. 160.) It is just possible that these two persons, of whom nothing further is known, may have been identical with each other, ind with the epigrammatist.

(Jacobs, AnthoL Grace, xiii. pp. 836-838 ; there s a reference to Alcaeus of Messene in Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. x. 2.) [P. S.]

ALCAEUS ('AAftraTos), of mytilene, in the sland of Lesbos, the earliest of the Aeolian lyric Doets, began to flourish in the 42nd Olympiad *vhen a contest had commenced between the nobles ind the people in his native state. Alcaeus be-onged by birth to the former party, and warmly espoused their cause. In the second year of the t2nd Olympiad (b. c. 611), we find the brothers of

ALCAEUS.

Alcaeus, namely, Cicis and Antimenidas, fighting under Pittacus against Melaiichrus, Avho is de­scribed as the tyrant of Lesbos, and who fell in the conflict. (Diog. Laert. i. 74, 79 ; Strab. xiii. p. 617 ; Suidas, s. v. Kfias and TlirraKos; Etymol. M. p. 513, s. v. KiQapos, instead of K//m; Clin­ton, Fasti) i. p. 216.) Alcaeus does not appeal-to have taken part with his brothers on this occa­sion : on the contrary, he speaks of Melanchrus in terms of high praise. (Fr. 7, p. 426, Blomfield.) Alcaeus is mentioned in connexion with the war in Troas, between the Athenians and Mytilenaeans for the possession of Sigeum. (b. c. 606.) Though Pittacus, who commanded the army of Mytilene, slew with his own hand the leader of the Athe­nians, Phrynon, an Olympic victor, the Mytile-naeans were defeated, and Alcaeus incurred the disgrace of leaving his arms behind on the field of battle; these arms were hung up as a trophy by the Athenians in the temple of Pallas at Sigeum. (Herod, v. 95; Plut. de Herod. Malig. s. 15, p. 858; Strab. xiii. pp. 599, 600; Euseb. Chron. Oiym. xliii. 3; Clinton, Fasti, i. p. 219.) His sending home the news of this disaster in a poem, addressed to his friend Melanippus (Fr. 56, p. 438, Blomf.), seems to shew that he had a reputa­tion for courage, such as a single disaster could not endanger; and accordingly we find him spoken of by ancient writers as a brave and skilful warrior. (Anthol. Palat. ix. 184 ; Cic. Tusc. Disp. iv. 33 ; Hor. Carm. i. 32. 6; Athen. xv. p. 687.) He thought that his lyre was best employed in ani­mating his friends to warlike deeds, and his house is described by himself as furnished with the wea­pons of war rather than with the instruments of his art. (Athen. xiv. p. 627; Fr. 24, p. 430, Blomf.) During the period which followed the war about Sigeum, the contest between the nobles and the people of Mytilene was brought to a crisis ; and the people, headed by a succession of leaders, who are called tyrants, and among whom are men­tioned the names of Myrsilus, Megalagyrus, and the Cleanactids, succeeded in driving the nobles into exile. During this civil war Alcaeus engaged actively on the side of the nobles, whose spirits he endeavoured to cheer by a number of most ani­mated odes full of invectives against the tyrants ; and after the defeat of his party, he, with his bro­ther Antimenidas, led them again in an attempt to regain their country. To oppose this attempt Pit­tacus was unanimously chosen by the people as alffv^vriTfis (dictator) or tyrant. He held his office for ten years (b. c. 589—579), and during tliat time he defeated all the efforts of the exiled nobles, and established the constitution on a popu­lar basis; and then he resigned his power. (Strab. xiii. p. 617; Alcaeus, Fr. 23, p. 230, Blomf.; Arist. Rep. iii. 9. § 5, or iii. 14 ; Plut. Amat. § 18, p. 763 ; Diog. Laert. i. 79; Dionys. v. p. 336, Sylb.) [pittacus.]

Notwithstanding the invectives of Alcaeus against him, Pittacus is said to have set him at liberty when he had been taken prisoner, saying that " forgiveness is better than revenge." (Diog. Laert. i. 76; Valer. Max. iv. 1. § 6.) Alcaeus has not escaped the, suspicion of being moved by personal ambition in his opposition to Pittacus. (Strab. xiii. p. 617.) When Alcaeus and Anti­menidas perceived that all hope of their restoration to Mytilene was gone, they travelled over different countries. Alcaeus visited Egypt (Strab. i. p. 37),

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