The Ancient Library

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medes. In the contest about the armour of Achilles, he was conquered by Odysseus, and this, says Homer? became the cause of his death. (Od. xi. 541, &c.) Odysseus afterwards met his spirit in Hades, and endeavoured to appease it, but in vain. Thus far the story of Ajax', the Telainonian, is related in the Homeric poems. Later writers fur­nish us with various other traditions about his youth, but more especially about his death, which is so vaguely alluded to by Homer. According to Apollodorus (iii. 12. § 7) and Pindar (Isth. vi. 51, &c.), Ajax became invulnerable in conse­quence of a prayer which Heracles offered to Zeus, while he was on a visit in Salamis. The child was called Atas from aeros, an eagle, which ap­peared immediately after the prayer as a favour­able omen. According to Lycophron (455 with the Schol.), Ajax was born before Heracles came to Telamon, and the hero made the child invulner­able by wrapping him up in his lion's skin. (Comp. Schol. ad II. xxiii. 841.) Ajax is also mentioned among the suitors of Helen. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 8; Hygin. Fab. 81.) During the war against Troy, Ajax, like Achilles, made excursions into neighbouring countries. The first of them was to the Thracian Chersonesus, where he took Poly-doras, the son of Priam, who had been entrusted to the care of king Polymnestor, together with rich booty. Thence, he went into Phrygia, slew king Teuthras, or Teleutas, in single combat, and carried off great spoils, and Tecmessa, the king's daughter, who became his mistress. (Diet. Cret.. ii. 18; Soph. Aj. 210, 480, &c.; Hor. Carm. ii. 4. 5.) In the contest about the armour of Achilles, Agamemnon, on the advice of Athena, awarded the prize to Odysseus. This discomfiture threw Ajax into an awful state of madness. In the night he rushed from his tent, attacked the sheep of the Greek army, made great havoc among them, and dragged dead and living animals into his tent, fancying that they were his enemies. When, in the morning, he recovered his senses and beheld what he had done, shame and despair led him to destroy himself with the sword which Hector had once given him as a present. (Pind. Nem. vii. 36; Soph. Aj. 42, 277, 852 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 1, &c.; Lycophr. /. c.) Less poetical traditions make Ajax die by the hands of others. (Diet. Cret. v. 15; Dar. Phiyg. 35, and the Greek argu­ment to Soph. Ajax.) His step-brother Teucrus was charged by Telamon with the murder of Ajax, but succeeded in clearing himself from the accusa­tion. (Pans. i. 28. § 12.) A tradition mentioned by Pausanias (i. 35. § 3; comp. Ov. Met. xiii. 397, &c.) states, that from his blood there sprang up a purple flower which bore the letters al on its leaves, which were at once the initials of his name and expressive of a sigh. According to Dictys, Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, deposited the ashes of the hero in a golden urn on mount Rhoe-teion ; and according to Sophocles, he was buried by his brother Teucrus against the will of the Atreidae. (Comp. Q. Smyrn. v. 500; Philostr. Her. xi. 3.) Pausanias (iii. 19. § 11) represents Ajax, like many other heroes, as living after his death in the island of Leuce. It is said that when, in the time of the emperor Hadrian, the sea had washed 3pen the grave of Ajax, bones of superhuman size were found in it, which the emperor, however, ordered to be buried again. (Philostr. Her. i. 2 ; Paus. iii. 39. § 11.) Respecting the state and



wandering of his soul after his death, see Plato, De Re Publ. x. in fin. ; Plut. Sympos. ix. 5.

Ajax was worshipped in Salamis as the tutelary hero of the island, and had a temple with a statue there, and was honoured with a festival, AiavrtTa. (Diet, of Ant. s. v.) At Athens too he was wor­shipped, and was one of the eponymic heroes, one of the Attic tribes (Aeantis) being called after him. (Paus. i. 35. § 2; Plut. Sympos. i. 10.) Not far from the town Rhoeteion, on the promontory of the same name, there was likewise a sanctuary of Ajax, with a beautiful statue, which Antonius sent to Egypt, but which was restored to its ori­ginal place by Augustus. (Strab. xiii. p. 595.) According to Dictys Cretensis (v. 16) the wife of Ajax was Glauca, by whom she had a son, Aean-ticles; by his beloved Tecmessa, he had a son, Eurysaces. (Soph. Aj. 333.) Several illustrious Athenians of the historical times, such as Miltiades, Cimon, and Alcibiades, traced their pedigree to the Telainonian Ajax. (Paus. ii. 29. § 4 ; Plut. Alcib. 1.) The traditions about this hero furnished plentiful materials, not only for poets, but also for sculptors and painters. His single combat with Hector was represented on the chest of Cypselus (Paus. v. 19. § 1) ; his statue formed a part of a large group at Olympia, the work of Lycius. (Paus. v. 22. § 2; comp. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. § 36 ; Aelian, V. H. ix. 11.) A beautiful sculptured head, which is generally believed to be a head of Ajax, is still extant in the Egremont collection at Petworth. (Bottiger, Amaltliea, iii. p. 258.)

2. The son of Oileus, king of the Locrians, who is also called the Lesser Ajax. ' (Horn. //. ii. 527.) His mother's name was Eriopis. According to Strabo (ix. p. 425) his birthplace was Naryx in Locris, whence Ovid (Met. xiv. 468) calls him Narycius Jteros. According to the Iliad (ii. 527, &c.) he led his Locrians in forty ships (Hygin. Fab. 97, says twenty) against Troy. He is de­scribed as one of the great heroes among the Greeks, and acts frequently in conjunction with the Telainonian Ajax. He is small of stature and wears a linen cuirass (Aiz/o0wpr]|), but is brave and intrepid, especially skilled in throwing the spear, and, next to Achilles, the most swift-footed among all the Greeks. (IL xiv. 520, &c., xxiii. 789, &c.) His principal exploits during the siege of Troy are mentioned in the following passages : xiii. 700, &c., xiv. 520, &c., xvi. 350, xvii. 256, 732, &c. In the funeral games at the pyre of Patroclus he contended with Odysseus and Anti-lochus for the prize in the footrace; but Athena, who was hostile towards him and favoured Odys­seus, made him stumble and fall, so that he gained only the second prize, (xxiii. 754, &c.) On his return from Troy his vessel was wrecked on the Whirling Rocks (Vvpal Trerpai), but he him­self escaped upon a rock through the assistance of Poseidon, and would have been saved in spite of Athena, but he used presumptuous words, and said that he would escape the dangers of the sea in defiance of the immortals. Hereupon Poseidon split the rock with his trident, and Ajax was swallowed up by the sea. (Od. iv. 499, &c.)

In later traditions this Ajax is called a son of Oileus and the nymph Rhene, and is also men­tioned among the suitors of Helen. (Hygin. Fab. 81, 97; Apollod. iii. 10. § 8.) According to :; tradition in Philostratus (Her. viii. 1), Ajax had a tame dragon, five cubits in length, which follow-

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