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AGRIPPINA.

During some years Tiberius disguised his hatred of Agrippina; but she soon became exposed to secret accusations and intrigues. She asked the emperor's permission to choose another husband, but Tiberius neither refused nor consented to the proposition. Sejanus, who exercised an unbound­ed influence over Tiberius, then a prey to mental disorders, persuaded Agrippina that the emperor intended to poison her. Alarmed at such a report, she refused to eat an apple which the emperor offered her from his table, and Tiberius in his turn complained of Agrippina regarding him as a poisoner. According to Suetonius, all this was an intrigue preconcerted between the emperor and Sejanus, who, as it seems, had formed the plan of leading Agrippina into false steps. Tibe­rius was extremely suspicious of Agrippina, and shewed his hostile feelings by allusive words or neglectful silence. There were no evidences of ambitious plans formed by Agrippina? but the rumour having been spread that she would fly to the army, he banished her to the island of Pan-dataria (a. d. 30) where her mother Julia had died in exile. Her sons Nero and Drusus were likewise banished and both died an unnatural death. She lived three years on that barren

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island; at lust she refused to take any food, and died most probably by voluntary starvation. Her death took place precisely two years after and on the same date as the murder of Sejanus, that is in a. d. 33. Tacitus and Suetonius tell us, that Tiberius boasted that he had not strangled her. (Sueton. Tib. 53 ; Tac. Ann. vi. 25.) The ashes of Agrippina and those of her son Nero were afterwards brought to Rome by order of her son, the emperor Caligula, who struck various medals in honour of his mother. In the one figured below, the head of Caligula is on one side and that of his mother on the other. The words on each side are respectively, c. caesar. avg. ger. p.m. tr. pot.,

and AGRIPPINA. MAT. C. CAES. AVG. GERM.

(Tac. Ann. i.—vi.; Sueton. Odav. 64, Tib. I. c., Calig. I.e.; Dion. Cass. Ivii. 5, 6, Iviii. 22.) [W. P ]

AGRIPPINA II., the daughter of Germani-cus and Agrippina the elder, daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa. She was born between A. d. 13 and 17, at the Oppidum Ubiorum, afterwards called in honour of her Colonia Agrippina, now Cologne, and then the head-quarters of the legions commanded by her father. In a. D. 28, she mar­ried Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, a man not un­like her, and whom she lost in a. d. 40. After his death she married Crispus Passienus, who died some years afterwards ; and she was accused of hav­ing poisoned him, either for the purpose of obtain­ing his great fortune, or for some secret motive of much higher importance. She was already known for her scandalous conduct, for her most perfidi-dus intrigues, and for an unbounded ambition. She was accused of having committed incest with her own brother, the emperor Caius Caligula, who under the pretext of having discovered that she had lived in an adulterous intercourse

AGRIPPINA. 81

with M. Aemilius Lepidus, the liusband of her sister Drusilla, banished her to the island of Pontia, which was situated opposite the bay of Caieta, off the coast of Italy. Her sister Drusilla was likewise banished to Pontia, and it seems that their exile was connected with the punish­ment of Lepidus, who was put to death for having conspired against the emperor. Previously to her exile, Agrippina was compelled by her brother to carry to Rome the ashes of Lepidus. This happened in a. d. 39. Agrippina and her sister were released in A. d. 41, by their uncle, Clau­dius, immediately after his accession, although his wife, Messalina, was the mortal enemy of Agrippina. Messalina was put to death by order of Claudius in a. d. 48 ; and in the follow­ing year, a. d. 49, Agrippina succeeded in mar­rying the emperor. Claudius was her uncle, but her marriage was legalized by a senatusconsul-tum, by which the marriage of a man with his brother's daughter was declared valid ; this senatus-consultum was afterwards abrogated by the emper­ors Constantine and Constans. In this intrigue Agrippina displayed the qualities of an accomplished courtezan, and such was the influence of her charms and superior talents over the old emperor, that, in prejudice of his own son, Britannicus, he adopt­ed Domitius, the son of Agrippina by her first husband, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. (a. d. 51.) Agrippina was assisted in her secret plans by Pallas, the perfidious confidant of Claudius, By her intrigues, L. Junius Silanus, the husband of Octavia, the daughter of Claudius, was put to death, and in A. d. 53, Octavia was married to young Nero. Lollia Paullina, once the rival of Agrippina for the hand of the emperor, was accused of high treason and condemned to death; but she put an end to her own life. Domitia Lepida, the sister of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, met with a similar fate. After having thus removed those whose rivalship she dreaded, or whose virtues she envied, Agrippina resolved to get rid of her hus­band, and to govern the empire through her ascen­dency over her son Nero, his successor. A vague rumour of this reached the emperor; in a state of drunkenness, he forgot prudence, and/talked about punishing his ambitious wife. Having no time to lose, Agrippina, assisted by Locusta and Xenophon, a Greek physician, poisoned the old emperor, in a. d. 54, at Sinuessa, a watering-place to which he had retired for the sake of his health. Nero was proclaimed emperor, and presented to the troops by Burrus, whom Agrippina had appointed praefectus praetorio. Narcissus, the rich freedman of Claudius, M. Junius Silanus, proconsul of Asia, the brother of L. Junius Silanus, and a great-grandson of Augustus, lost their lives at the insti­gation of Agrippina, who would have augmented the number of her victims, but for the opposition of Burrus arid Seneca, recalled by Agrippina from his exile to conduct the education of Nero. Mean­while, the young emperor took some steps to shake off the insupportable ascendency of his mother. The jealousy of Agrippina rose from her son's pas­sion for Acte, and, after her, for Poppaea Sabina, the wife of M. Salvius Otho. To reconquer his affection, Agrippina employed, but in vain, most daring and most revolting means. She threatened to oppose Britannicus as a rival to the emperor ; but Britannicus was poisoned by Nero ; and she even solicited her son to an incestuous inter-

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