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cognomen in the early times of the empire, but not under the republic. One of the mythical kings of Alba is called by this name. (Liv. i. 3.) Ac­cording to Aulus Gellius (xvi. 16), Pliny (H. N. vii. 6. s. 8), and Solinus (1), the word signifies a birth, at which the child is presented with its feet, foremost; but their derivation of it from aegre par-tus or pes is absurd enough. (Comp. Sen. Gcd. 813.) AGRIPPA ('AypiTriras), a sceptical philosopher, only known to have lived later than Aenesidemus, the contemporary of Cicero, from whom he is said to have been the fifth in descent. He is quoted by Diogenes Laertius, who probably wrote about the time of M. Antoninus. The "five grounds of doubt" (oi ttcvtg TpoTroi), which are given by Sextus Empiricus as a summary of the later scepti­cism, are ascribed by Diogenes Laertius (ix. 88) to Agrippa.

1. The first of these argues from the uncertainty of the rules of common life, and of the opinions of philosophers. II. The second from the " rejectio ad infinitum :" all proof requires some further proof, and so on to infinity. III. All things are changed as their relations become changed, or, as we look upon them in different points of view. IV. The truth asserted is merely an hypothesis or, _V. involves a vicious circle. (Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrlion. Ph/pot. i. 15.)

With reference to these ttgvtg rpfiirot, it need only be remarked, that the first and third are a short summary of the ten original grounds of doubt which were the basis of the earlier scepticism. [pvrrhon.] The three additional ones shew a progress in the sceptical system, and a transition from the common objections derived from the falli­bility of sense and opinion, to more abstract and metaphysical grounds of doubt. They seem to mark, a new attempt to systematize the sceptical philosophy and adapt it to the spirit of a later age. (Hitter, Geschichte der Philosophic, xii. 4.) [B. J.] AGRIPPA, M. ASI'NIUS, consul a. d. 25, iied A. d. 26, was descended from a family more illustrious than ancient, and did not disgrace it by :iis mode of life. (Tac. Ann. iv. 34, 61.)

AGRIPPA CASTOR (^p^Tras KaVrcop), ibout a. d. 135, praised as a historian by Euse-iius, and for his learning by St Jerome (de Viris Uluslr. c. 21), lived in the reign of Hadrian. He ;vrote against the twenty-four books of the Alex-mdrian Gnostic, on the Gospel. Quota-ions are made from his work by Eusebius. (Hist. Vceles. iv. 7 ; see Gallandi's Bibliotlieca Pat-rum^

-ol. i. p. 330.) [A. J. C.J

AGRIPPA, FONTEIUS. 1. One of the ac-users of Libo, a. d. 16, is again mentioned in .. d, 19, as offering his daughter for a vestal vir-in. (Tac. Ann. ii. 30, 86.)

2. Probably the son of the preceding, command-el the province of Asia with pro-consular power, . d. 6,9, and was recalled from thence by Vespa-ian, and placed over Moesia in a. d. 70. He ras shortly afterwards killed in battle by the Sar-'uitians. (Tac. Hist. iii. 46; Joseph. B. Jud. ii. 4. § 3.)

AGRIPPA, D. HATE'RIUS, called by Taci-is (Ann. ii. 51) the propinquus of Germanicus,

•as tribune of the plebs a. d. 15, praetor a. d. 17, id consul A. d. 22. His moral character was sry low, and he is spoken of in a. d. 32, as plot-ng the destruction of many illustrious men. Tac. Ann, i. 77, ii. 51, iii. 49, 52, vi. 4.)



AGRIPPA, HERO'DES I. ('Hpw'fys 'A.ypiinras)9

called by Josephus (Ant. Jud. xvii. 2. § 2), "Agrippa the Great," was the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. Shortly before the death of his grandfather, he came to Rome, where he was educated with the future emperor Claudius, and Drusus the son of Tiberius. He squandered his property in giving sumptuous entertainments to gratify his princely friends, and in bestowing largesses on the freed-men of the emperor, and became so deeply involved in debt, that he was compelled to fly from Rome, and betook himself to a fortress at Malatha in Idumaea. Through the mediation of his wife Cypros, with his sister Herodias, the wife of He-rocles Antipas, he was allowed to take up his abode at Tiberias, and received the rank of aedile in that city, with a small yearly income. But hav­ing quarrelled with his brother-in-law, he fled to Flaccus, the proconsul of Syria. Soon afterwards he was convicted, through the information of his brother Aristobulus, of having received a bribe from the Damascenes, who wished to purchase his influence with the proconsul, and was again com­pelled to fly. He was arrested as he was about to sail for Italy, for a sum of money which he owed to the treasury of Caesar, but made his escape, and reached Alexandria, where his wife succeeded in procuring a supply of money from Alexander the Alabarch. He then set sail, and landed at Puteoli. He was favourably received by Tiberius, who en­trusted him with the education of his grandson Tiberius. He also formed an intimacy with Gains Caligula. Having one day incautiously expressed a wish that the latter mi^ht soon succeed to the


throne, his words were reported by his freedman Eutychus to Tiberius, who forthwith threw him into prison. Caligula, on his accession (a. d. 37), set him at liberty, and gave him the tetrarchies of Lysanias (Abilene) and Philippus (Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis). He also presented him with a golden chain of equal weight with the iron one which he had worn in prison. In the following year Agrippa took possession of his king­dom, and after the banishment of Herodes Antipas, the tetrarchy of the latter was added to his domi­nions.

On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at the time in Rome, materially assisted Claudius in gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for his services, Judaea and Samaria were annexed to his dominions, which were now even more exten­sive than those of Herod the Great. He was also invested with the consular dignity, and a league was publicly made with him by Claudius in the forum. At his request, the kingdom of Chalcis was given to his brother Herodes. (a. d. 41.) He then went to Jerusalem, where he offered sacrifices, and suspended in the treasury of the temple the golden chain which Caligula had given him. His government was mild and gentle, and he was ex­ceedingly popular amongst the Jews. In the city of Berytus he built a theatre and amphitheatre, baths, and porticoes. The suspicions of Claudius prevented him from finishing the impregnable for­tifications with which he had begun to surround Jerusalem. His friendship was courted by many of the neighbouring kings and rulers. It was probably to increase his popularity with the Jews that he caused, the apostle James, the brother of John, to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into

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